Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja MA Dissertation PG05 C.A.R.D.

Diepiri, Gordon, MacPepple-Jaja


Master of Arts Degree

Broadcast Futures

Student ID: 95829712

PG05 C.A.R.D. Leader:

Professor Jeremy Barr

Liz McQuiston

Dr. Nick Lambert

PG05 Major Project Leader and Course Tutor: Reg Sanders

Senior Lecturer Interactive Digital Media, Deputy Course Director Postgraduate Studies: Britta Pollmuller

Course Director Postgraduate Studies:

Jeremy Gardner

 C.A.R.D. Research deadlines: 16th September 2013.

Research (10,000 -13,000 Words)

Excluding bibliography, pictures & reference PG05 Major Project was uploaded on 9th September on Moodle. It is also available to view on Vimeo at: https://vimeo.com/72680675


0.1     Introduction

0.2     Abstract

0.3     Historical Context

1.0     Chapter 1. Literature Reviews

1.1     His Royal Majesty, King Dandeson, Douglas, Jaja, JP; Jeki V.

1.2     Leon Alberti and the European Renaissance

1.3     Ayittey, G. and Acheba, C.

1.4     3D Programming

1.5     2D/3D Filming Technique developed by Alabo Mac for ‘The Painting’

2.0     Chapter 2. Manifesto of ‘Modern African Art Movement’

2.1     The Modern African Movement (MAA)

2.2     The Modern African Art Movement (MAAM)

2.3     Slogan: ‘MAAM is for Good!’

2.4     The Modern African Movement (MAAM) Manifesto

2.5     ‘MAAM’ Manifesto for Film Broadcasting

3.0     Chapter 3. Methodology/Approach/Conceptual Framework

3.1     Methodology

3.2     Approach

3.3     Conceptual Framework

3.4     Conceptual Script for ‘The Painting’

3.5     Conceptual Lyrics of the Song ‘The Painting’

4.0     Chapter 4. Discussion

4.1     MAA Artists and broadcasters

4.2     The Director and Producers Production Discussion ideas

5.0     Chapter 5. Aims and Objectives for Major Project

5.1     The aim of this C.A.R.D.

5.2     5 Elements of MAA to be used to impact ‘The Painting’

5.3     New Elements of MAA to be used for Future Contemporary Broadcasts

6.0     Chapter 6.  Analysis/Results

6.1.    European Artists influenced by Modern African Art.

7.0     Chapter 7.

7.1     Paul Cezanne

7.2     Henri Matisse

7.3     Pablo Picasso

7.4     Kazimir Malevich

7.5     Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja

7.8       Yinka Shonibare

8.0       Chapter 8.  MAA Elements for Future Broadcasting Projects


8.1       Authenticity


8.2     History

8.3     Mathematics

8.4     Architecture

8.5     Masks

8.6     Sculpture

8.7     Fashion and Textiles

8.8     Promotion

8.9     Music

8.10    Hair

8.11    Beauty

8.12     Version (Hybrids or Fusions)

8.13    Content

8.14    Celebrity

8.15    Traditional Culture

8.16    African Dance

9.00    Chapter 9. Conclusions

10.0    Bibliography and References


The author Diepiri, Gordon, MacPepple-Jaja wishes to take this opportunity to thank all his lecturers and the wonderful people he has met during the course of his MA Post Graduate Degree study at Ravensbourne.

Appendix i

‘The Painting’ PowerPoint, in Premier Pro

Appendix ii

Primary Data Survey collected at Summer Exhibition 2013


 0.0     Title

In this research the author is seeking to enhance knowledge and understanding in relation to the lead question to be answered which is ‘How can elements of ‘Modern African Art’ be used to impact contemporary broadcasting?’

0.1     Introduction

The name given to the new ‘African Renaissance’ by the author Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja is ‘Modern African Art’ (MAA). The Movement associated with it is called the ‘Modern African Art Movement’ (MAAM); for the purpose of this research C.A.R.D. they shall be abbreviated to MAA and MAAM.

The aim of the C.A.R.D is to explain to the reader what ‘Modern African Art’ is and why the author is using elements of MAA as a creative source of influence to impact his Major broadcasting Project‘ entitled ‘The Painting’.

The Project will be set in the hip-hop genre and impacted using 5 elements of MAA discovered during the authors PG04 prototyping and testing research. These elements are Sound, Colour, Mood, Rhythm, and Form.

Sound: Will be used to impact the introduction segments of the ‘sound track’ using ‘call and response chants’ and this will be reflected in the jump-cut images of the Painter in the piece.

Colour: The hue saturated of red and blue colours prevalent in MAA shall be applied in the form of the authors AA paintings which also exhibit other colours such as greens and yellows.

Mood: The Mood shall be set by using a ‘GuitarBridge in the song and imagery to evoke empathy using subdued MAA colours in the broadcasting.

Rhythm: Created by tom, tom, bongos and drums applied to the ‘intro and breaks’ of the hip-hop sound track, and through the hip-hop drum beats.

Form: The African tradition of Griot story telling will be used to impact the Film Sound track by Alabo Mac as a modern day Griot. He will deliver his lyrical content with a masterly play of words, in a free flow form, to conjure up images in the minds of the viewer to evoke empathy for the mental health victim as the viewer experiences what it is like as a mental health sufferer.

The author has used Wikkipedia on occasions for researching and referencing because in many cases he has found the information to be a good source when it comes to Modern African Art broadcasting.


0.2     Abstract

Why the author has chosen to use ‘Modern African Art’ elements to impact his contemporary broadcasting project is because he wishes to experiment with MAA as a source of influence to impact his broadcasting work by observing what the final outcome will be? Since the author wishes to set up an online African TV Channel called http://www.dmjtv.com after his MA studies which will benefit from this type of research from the knowledge gained.

It is also important to note that the author has some understanding of Africa’s rich history, heritage, culture and traditions. As a result he is keen to master this area of research to enhance his and creativity. On this bases the author has carried out quality primary research in the form of data collection from a survey questionnaire based on the lead research question, and recorded interviews. He has also recorded key knowledge Keepers by ‘face to face’ interviews, studied online videos as tools for learning, and conducted quality secondary research using books, journals, websites, blogs, and social media.

The main arguments in this research are the history of this art form? Knowing who the early subscribers are that created their own versions of MAA? Discovering what elements of MAA can be used to impact contemporary broadcasting?

0.3     Historical Context

Since ancient times in history the African people’s cultures and traditions have influenced other cultures throughout the world. There is documentary evidence that life began in Africa as the birth place of mankind. This means that all humans have a common African ancestry and a shared human culture learnt for millions of years ago in Africa.

Traditional African Art and Architecture is the oldest and most authentic form the World has ever known since it predates all other Art forms, movements and styles. Mans creativity has developed from this source to suite his own needs as he migrated from Africa and spread throughout the five continents. With this knowledge of the History of the African people who have been responsible for creating all things known to man in the earliest and ancient of days, when man was living in African as the original people who begat all other humans. It is important to point out that there is something intrinsic in all humans that is African and that is their DNA the building blocks of life itself. Therefore MAA is a human heritage man can learn from and be proud of.

The purpose of this research is to point out that man has always been learning and taking his influences from Africa to enrich his own culture as defined by each human race. Therefore to dumb down or pretend that it is not importance to give credence or credit to those influences drawn from the rich human achievements made by African Artists is not proper and it is only right and that anyone using authentic African influences should not hid the origins of their Art as the Europe Artists and Architects did in the early 20th Century by giving the art names such as ‘Cubism’, ‘Fauvism or Abstraction’ to suit their needs. Since these terms do not describe African Art and for over 110 years the credit for the ancient art forms from Africa has been credited to European Artists such as Paul Cézanne, Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso who were heavily influenced by African Art who managed to misappropriate it for them selves, using those terms to disguise the true authentic origins which is African! Whether this was intentional or not? ‘Modern African Art’ (MAA) and the ‘Movement (MAAM) seeks to restore ownership of those terms: ‘Cubism, Abstraction’ plus all the other forms of Art deriving from those art forms by re-brand them ‘Modern African Art’ thus giving ownership of the art forms back to the African people. Why this is important is because the Africans identity and visual expression has been confused by Europeans as theirs! This has happened for over 110 years which has robbed African Artists of their just recognition as contributors in the advancements of modern development in areas such as contemporary broadcasting and music.

1.0     Chapter 1 Literature Reviews

1.1     His Royal Majesty King Dandeson, Douglas, Jaja JP; Jeki V.

According to His Royal Majesty King Dandeson, Douglas, Jaja JP; Jeki V, Amayanabo of Opobo, Kingdom, Niger Delta, Rivers State, Nigeria, West Africa in his book. Jaja, D. (2012, p.56) ‘A Dawn Knocking,’ “We urge Nigerians to learn to renew their institutions and values. A society without a past is also one without a future. Such a past is usually reflected in the values handed down to us by our ancestors and predecessors. Let us build on what we have and not seek to destroy them”

By heeding the call of His majesty King Jaja V, ‘Modern African Art’ can be a cause for good when producing contemporary broadcasting such as Nollywood movies.


1.2 Leon Alberti and the European Renaissance

According to Grafton, A. (2002) ‘Leon Battista, Alberti Master Builder of the Italian Renaissance.’ Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ‘The Master Builder Leon Alberti is credited as the father of the Italian Renaissance Art and Architecture, by reintroducing ancient Classical knowledge to the arts with its own style which was known as Classicism.’

According to Freke, T. and Gandy, P. in the book, ‘The Hermetica The Lost Wisdom of the Pharaohs’ (1999, p. xx – xxii) ‘Hemes and the Reawakening of Europe states that, ‘With the Arab empire becoming increasingly intolerant, the owners of the Hermetic books travelled in search of a safe refuge. In the fithteenth century many fled to the tolerant city –state Florence in North Italy, Where this wisdom again inspired a great cultural flowering. In 1438 the Byzantine scholar Gemisto Plethon made available to the awe-struck Florentines the entire lost works of Plato. These and other Pagan works where translated into Latin for the first time. The ruler of Florence, the philanthropist and scholar Cosimo de Medici, established a New Platonic Academy – a group of intellectuals and mystics who found their inspiration in the ancient Pagan philosophy. It profoundly influenced great names like Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Botticelli, and Raphael, who began painting pictures of the ancient Pagan Gods. Botticelli’s ‘Venus and Mars, for example, was painted at a precise astrological moment as a ‘talisman of occult radiance’, capable of magically transporting the viewer to an alterd state of spiritual awareness.’    

According to Freke, T. and Gandy, P. In the author’s opinion, where it might be correct to credit Leon Battista Alberti as someone who introduced the Italian Renaissance to Florence it is wrong to accredit him as the Creator or authentic originator. That accolade belongs to Hermes the ancient African Egyptian Sage.

1.3     Ayittey, G. and Acheba, C.

In the book Africa Betrayed by Ayittey, G. (1991, p. 101) it says, ‘As we march towards the 21 century, Africa’s youths are saying enough is enough. The old rulers should give way to more dynamic and progressive younger men.

In the book Africa in Chaos the author Ayittey, G. ( 1999, p. 226) says that ‘African leaders must learn that the atrocities of banning books, silencing writers and journalists, and exiling, imprisoning, torturing, and murdering dissidents are counterproductive. Worse, they have silenced millions of Africans who are terrified of expressing alternative viewpoints. A “culture of silence” now grips Ethiopia, Ghana, Liberia, Uganda, Zaire, and many other Countries. This fear has made it virtually impossible for Africans themselves to come forward with their own solutions to their own problems. The inevitable consequence has been the absence in Africa of free marketplace for ideas and home-grown solutions to the continent’s problems. As a result, solutions to African problems must come from abroad, and this perpetuates the myth that Africans cannot think for themselves and devise solutions to their own problems. Worse, the foreign solutions often prove unsuitable for Africa’s unique socioeconomic conditions and usually results in wasted foreign exchange expenditures.

In the book Africa in Chaos by Ayittey, G. (1999, p. 29) chapter 2. The Writer Chinua Achebe (1985,3). Says of ‘Africa’s Crises and Underdevelopment that ‘The trouble with Nigeria is simply and squarely a failure of leadership. There is nothing basically wrong with the Nigerian character. There is nothing wrong with the Nigerian land or climate or water or air or anything else. The Nigerian problem is the unwillingness or inability of its leaders to rise to the responsibility, to the challenge of personal example which are the hallmarks of true leadership… We have lost the 20th century; are we bent on seeing that our children also lose the twenty-first? God forbid!’

This assertion is also very true by the late writer Chinua Achebe all of it points to self help and good leadership, just like the comments made by Ayittey. Through self help courage and true leadership there is hope for Africa in this 21st century. This must come as an exemplary hall mark from good leadership. In this case Nigeria the Country Chinua is referring to, is also the Country of the author’s place of birth.

In response to Ayittey, G. and Acheba, C. it is the author’s opinion that what both writers are saying is evidently true as the sign of the times, since African youth today are now flexing their muscles in the arts such as in broadcasting music, fashion etc. with tremendous success such as the current explosion of the new art forms of music ‘Afrobeats and Azonto’ deriving from older forms of traditional African music Afro-Beat and Hi-life music, thus taking control in creating their own unique sounds, images, cultures, futures and destiny’s.

1.4     3D Programming Content

In the on-line journal Wired.co.uk Collins, K. (2013) ‘BBC to halt 3D programming after Doctor Who special this year. Available at: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-07/05/bbc-cuts-3d-programming (Accessed: 9th August 2013).

According to Collins (2013) ‘The BBC will hit pause on its 3D programming project when it reaches the end of its two-year trial later this year. Following a Doctor Who special, a three-year hiatus from developing 3D content will ensue due to lack of public interest in the medium, says Kim Shillinglaw, the BBC’s head of 3D.’

According to Head of BBC 3D, Shillinlaw (2013)  ‘Says the Corporation needs to take three years away from 3D which the viewing public find too “hassly”.

Shillinglaw goes on to say, ‘During this pilot period the Corporation has experimented with televising several shows and events in 3D, including its flagship entertainment format Strictly Come Dancing, the David Walliams children’s drama Mr. Stink, natural history documentary Walking with Dinosaurs, and last summer’s Olympic Games.’


‘However, even though an estimated 1.5 million UK households now own 3D enabled televisions the BBC’s 3D coverage of the Olympics Opening Ceremony was only watched by around half of all 3D TV owners in the UK. Last Christmas’ broadcasts of Mr. Stink and the Queen’s Speech proved to be even more disappointing, drawing the interest of less than 5% of potential viewers, it has emerged.’

Explaining the problem, Shillinglaw told RadioTimes.com: “I have never seen a very big appetite for 3D television in the UK. “Watching 3D is quite a hassly experience in the home. You have got to find your glasses before switching on the TV. I think when people watch TV they concentrate in a different way. When people go to the cinema they go and are used to doing one thing – I think that’s one of the reasons that take up of 3D TV has been disappointing.” Shillinglaw, K. (2013) BBC put 3D Project on Hold due to lack of Public Appetite for Technology. Available at: http://www.radiotimes.com/news/2013-07-04/bbc-put-3d-projects-on-hold-due-to-lack-of-public-appetite-for-technology (Accessed: 9th August 2013).

1.5     2D/3D Filming Technique developed by Alabo Mac for ‘The Painting’

This lack of interest in 3D as stated above in section 1.4 is the reason why the author of this CARD as the Producer of ‘The Painting’ has decided to use a new hybrid 3D technique that will not need the use of 3D glasses and can be viewed on screens. The new 3D technique has been developed by the Director and Editor Alabo Mac. This is because the Stereoscopic 3D technique is quite complex and requires the use of red and blue eye 3D glasses to view the broadcast. Alabo has named his film technique 3D/2D.         By doing this it is hoped that the production will be able to reach a much broader audience without the hassles expressed by Collins and Shillinlaw.

3D/2D is created by shooting an object in a green or blue screen (3D Space) this can be combined with a (2 D space) during post-production by applying a 3rd camera in After Effects plus 3D graphics and special effects on the green or blue screen 3D/2D spaces. In this case we will be using elements of MAA to impact the Major Project ‘The Painting.’

It is felt by the Producer that this also will reduce the problem of people having headaches after viewing content using 3D glasses since the mass public are used to watching broadcasting without glasses. This makes it more possible to reach a larger audience. The author will also build in future proofing by shooting the content in Full High Definition using 5D and 550D SLR Cameras.


2.0     Chapter 2. Manifesto of the Modern African Art Movement

2.1     Modern African Art (MAA)

The concept and theories of ‘Modern African Art’ as introduced by the author Diepiri MacPeppple-Jaja is a Modern “African Renaissance” taking place; a re-birth of the creative process by Africans at home and abroad which has been triggered in the Arts. After years of neglect the African Community at long last can freely express themselves in their own unique way by broadcasting to a growing international audience as highlighted in the primary survey conducted by the author. See Survey response sheets in (Appendix 2).


2.2     The Modern African Movement (MAAM)

In the author’s opinion contemporary broadcasting will be at the forefront of creativity in this Century. As more Africans gain access to digital broadcasting skills and learn the art of telling their own stories it is hoped that they will do so by using MAA elements to impact their broadcasting, by subscribing to the authors concepts of MAA giving rise to a new approach to contemporary broadcasting instigated by the ‘MAAM’.

2.3     MAAM Slogan: ‘MAAM is for Good!’

If the current wave of African broadcasters and artists like Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja, Yinka Shonibare, Sukari-Douglas Camp and Chris Ofili are anything to go by, then the revolution has begun! It was not televised! It was not announced but is now being ‘shouted loud and clear by the author:                     ‘MAAM is for Good!’

2.4           The Modern African Movement (MAAM) Manifesto


MAAM is a rich tapestry of cultural and traditional influences from Africa; from its early Bantu origins in history to its deep mystical cultural secrets from antiquity as the birth place of mankind that can be used to impact contemporary broadcasting and all other art forms.

‘Just think of MAA as the new ‘African Renaissance’ a ‘Rebirth in everything modern and African and authentically related to the African people in relation to elements of their Arts, Culture and Traditions which can be used to impact contemporary broadcasting. Elements such as African: history, form, content, fashion, Art, tradition, techniques, and modern technology.’

‘MAAM seeks to reclaim what has been lost by misappropriation in the name of progress, through denial by prominent artists such as the Cubists, Cubist-futurists and Abstract Artists of the 20th Century Who used African Art, Architecture, Sculptor, and Textile Designs to impact their contemporary work without giving credit to African artists as the authentic original source of influence and inspiration for their work.  

2.5           ‘MAAM’ Manifesto for Film Broadcasting

Hollywood is the past!

Bollywood is the Present!

Nollywood is the Future!

Fig.1. (MacPepple-Jaja D. (2012) The Manifesto of the Modern African Art Movement for Broadcasting [Photograph]. London: MacPepple-Jaja Foundation.

The Influence for this Manifesto was derived from lectures on Manifestoes by Barr, J. Professor. & McQuiston, L. (Ravensbourne, 2012).


3.0     Chapter 3.    Methodology/Approach/Conceptual Framework

3.1 Methodology

Using the discoveries gained from the prototyping and testing experiments in the PG04, 5 elements of MAA: rhythm, form, colour, mood and sound will be used to impact the major project to evoke empathy form the viewer(s) through Alabo Mac’s use of lyrics, acting and performance. The audience will witness the mental health experienced by the Painter to evoke empathy.

3.2 Approach

By learning from past examples from antiquity to the present we can seek to enhance our knowledge and understanding of Modern African Art through the study of African history and modern 20th Century art to authenticate and increase our knowledge of the other elements that can be used to impact contemporary broadcasting.

3.3 Conceptual Framework

The Conceptual framework and driving force for the Major PG05 project will be contemporary Hip-hop broadcasting. This is because the Hip-hop genre constantly presents opportunities to introduce new elements to the creative process as concepts and ideas suitable for the authors world-wide target audience between the ages of 10- 55 years from Africa and the Diaspora.

3.4 Conceptual Lyrics of the Song ‘The Painting’


The concept lyrics of the song ‘The Painting’ comes from Alabo’s imagination and inspiration from the music.


Concept lyrics of the song the painting


Field full of people too much to doubt I don’t fit in but do I stand out

Field full of people and soon ima shout its time to lets them others

know what I’m about


Ink spilling on the canvas tampering with brush and pallets

as I translate this vision to this painting with metallic

and acrylic coloured paints while contemplating is it

that easy to portray to masses and gain subconscious understanding or

will they take it passive and pass it around perhaps recall a

passage that’s not complex out of context not a challenge to

expansion of that squidgy thing inside your skull

get your brain overgrown that makes you human more than 23 pairs of chromosomes

hold the phone am I too weird to relate to what’s currently going on

am I surfing several planets while there still trading pokemon I

feel to alien in my circumference there’s lack of abundant comfort

if its wrong to rebel then I wanna be over wrong

cause it seems that almost every topic I’m outspoken on

am I the only clover with the fourth leaf

no I don’t even foresee these seeders low vocabulary speaker reaching before me

not even give em the kick like adidas please I’m a

beast to your speakers be the preheat

I’m a creature as I creep deeper and deeper and leave you fatigued at kilometers

cause truly I kill the meter meaner is my demeanor

decibels of distortion while I shout to rival the reaper

dead right that I’m super eager who am I I’m the dreamer

and just a small town brudda with a high faded ceaser

going virally steeper climbing while your asleep I’m

defying tiredness reason so this time I am the leader

Field full of people too much to doubt I don’t fit in but do I stand out

Field full of people and soon ima shout its time to lets them others other

know what I’m about


And even when I’m faded and raving I crave everything for the taking

what to make I guess my genes depict amazing motivation

not taking originality for a godforsaken crazy mistaken

modification I see beauty in the creation of

shaping these generations and upgrading to awaken

freeing nations up all through this audio emancipation

decapitating this manifestation of brainwashed cravings of

materialized things that’s what I be contemplating.

As I paint the picture

3.5 Conceptual Script of the Song ‘The Painting’

The Concept Script is inspired by the music and words of the song written by Alabo Mac.


Conceptual Script

Intro: Alabo, eyes closed on chair sitting down 1920p PAINTER

Shots 1920p: Face from distant, close-up of face close-up of eyes close CLOSED As the PAINTER

Intro chorus: Alabo Mac Past memories health status performance shots etc

Eyes open:

Shot: filmed from back. Full body shot blue screen 1280P slow motion.

From the side tip toed full body 1280p. From the front tip toed full body 1280p. Feet POV. Hands POV

Shot: shoulder length. Face length blue screen portrait shot over his face from backwards of the face from above and side

Shot: 1920 get whole body from behind, blue screen


Ink spilling

Shots: close-up of head rapping on blue-screen front on 1920p

Shot: First half of verse with side on view above shoulder length 1920p

Will they take it passive: from.

Shoulder length shot rapping blue screen front on 1920p

Hold the phone:

Shot: close-up of eye not blinking, open

Slow motion 1280p!! 1280p!! Blue-screen. Then other eye of PAINTER

Hold the phone:

Shot: close-up. Length portrait performance shot 1920p blue -screen


Shot: Hands to show veins growing 1280p slow motion front on close up show whole arm


Beast to your speakers:

Shot: close-up face length green screen 1280 speeded up monster effect ,slow version of the song played


Shot: from behind with chair wide show, green screen slow song 1280


Shot: distant shot capturing ankles film into the chorus




Various shots of paintings and paint gear brushes etc: 1920p

Shot: overhead with head down 1920

Shot: more than shoulder length shot just a different Alabo Mac position with head down 1280p PAINTER




Chorus: drained energy Alabo Mac on chair from a far front on 1920p


Shot: hands showing veins light up 1920p normal speed


Shots: side of head down not rapping


Shots: mouth from front close up so mouth is on the left not rapping 1920


Shot: Medium distance shot front on 1920

(Screen saying do not continue system overload etc)


Shots: near elbow shoulder length performance shot blue-screen front on 1920p PAINTER

Shaping these generations:

Shots: one performance front on 1920p

Shots: hands up however back,

Blue-screen front on 1280 slow motion

One full body main one half body


Shots: PAINTER both arms birds-eye view different shots 1280p slow month and 1920p green-screen

Shots: jump up from side hands out full body. Jump up full body and half body all 1280p slow motion


Shots: screaming half body front on, head quick raise up and then slowly hold there film until the end 1280p


Shot: Film from behind blue-screen nearly full chair. 1280 PAINTER

Shot: far front on 1280p whole chair


4.0     Chapter 4.    Discussion

3D broadcasting for Movies and TV at this point and time in 2013 might have limited utilities regarding the types of programmes on offer. With some interest the author realises that Africa is left behind in terms of 3D broadcast content out-put for the time being, since there appears to be no demand. The inspiration for this paragraph is derived from a discussion with Professor Barr, J. (Ravensbourne, 2013) during the author’s final C.A.R.D. tutorial.

4.1     MAA Artists and broadcasters

The Discussion is based on the works of artists and broadcasters who use MAA elements to impact their work. Since the authors own work is influenced by the works of others such as China Acheba, Sembene Ousmane, Tenga Tega, Issac Sithole, Yinks Shinobare, Ibrahim El-Salahi, Fela Kuti and many other Artists and musicians. Other influences for broadcasting are from Nollywood movies and African TV Channels Iroko TV, Ben TV and DMJ TV the digital Broadcasting Channel the author is innovating. Futuristic films like Pacific Rim (3D) Idris Elba also feature high in the author’s insights into contemporary broadcasting.

4.2     The Director and Producers Production Discussion ideas

  1. MAA = Paintings will be inserted into the video by fading in and out.
  2. A Brain = Chromosomes, abstract thoughts that are subliminal.
  3. Old phone = A link between old and new technology.
  4. Planets = Surfing planets, Cosmology of the Ancient Egyptians.
  5. Rebels = Do not conform I will use Hip-hop music as a non conformist.
  6. Beast to your speaker = Use and apply bright African colour’s red & blue (maybe even show it running down on the TV screen for viewers to see! Red to represent suffering, blue Alabo’s cool demeanour
  7. Decibels of ‘Distortion’ = Camera movements, distort and use effects.
  8. Originality = Authenticity going back in time of creation, pyramids of Giza, if possible make the end result an immersive experience, to create a wow factor using a hybrid (fusion) MAA technique of 3D graphics and 2D. Look at Damien Marley and Naz video ‘Patience’.
  9.  Decapitating Materialism as I plant the picture = Anti-materialistic  show it by conditioning the viewer, by planting anti-materialist imagery in their minds which helps them to counter their materialistic  conditioning by other forms of media manipulation they have already experienced.


5.0     Chapter 5. Aims and Objectives for Major Project

5.1           The aim of this C.A.R.D.

The aim of this C.A.R.D. is to produce documentary evidence that backs up the authors, concepts, theories, and experimental ideas which can be explained, thoroughly researched and Harvard referenced in order for the author to be able to demonstrate that he has read ‘far and wide’ at a Masters Degree level in his chosen field of Broadcast Futures.

5.2           5 Elements of MAA to be used to impact ‘The Painting’

The objective of this C.A.R.D. is to research and understand how to produce the Major Practical Project using 5 elements of MAA to impact it as a contemporary broadcast. It is also to find other elements that can be used for future projects and to develop the concepts and theories and Movement.

5.3     New Elements of MAA to be used for Future Contemporary Broadcasts

The author will highlight other elements of MAA in this C.A.R.D. that can be used to impact contemporary broadcasting as indicated in the ‘Primary research survey questionnaire, collected to enhance the knowledge in this area of study. There were 60 survey participants in the survey which was conducted on 25th and 26th June 2013 at the Ravensbourne Post Graduate Degree Summer Exhibition. The quality of data collected suggests there are many other MAA elements that can be used to impact contemporary broadcasting such as African: Fashion, Textiles, Symbols, Masks, sculpture and Animals, language, tribal markings etc.

The author will impact the performance by introducing in the start of the contemporary broadcast the element of ‘Rhythm’ and ‘Sound’ by simple drum samples in the form of ‘call and response chants’. Then impact the major project further by setting the ‘Mood’ using ‘Colour’ red and blue running colours flowing down from the top of the screen to signify a human meltdown being experienced by the Painter.

We then evoked empathy using ‘Sound’ in the sustained guitar whilst depicted emotional imagery and magic to heighten the senses and to allow the viewer to be at one with the victim to experience anguish and pain he is going through in his tormented state.

The African Art ‘Form’ stems from way back throughout the ages of time to the cradle of life where mankind began in Africa. Therefore the authors aim is to herald in a new ‘Modern African Art Movement’ which can be used to impact all forms of contemporary broadcasting. It is important to acknowledge that it was first introduction as cubism to the European art world by great Artists such as Cézanne, Matisse and Pablo Picasso though there is a lack of acknowledgement to African Artists, Sculptors and carvers of Masks in the early 19th Century by those Cubist and Futuristic-cubists artists.

6.0     Chapter 6.  Analysis/Results

Through analysis and identifying results the author has discovered that other Artists who were note African have used MAA influences in their work.

6.1.    European Artists influenced by Modern African Art.

The use of elements of Modern African Art to impact contemporary 20th C Western Art and culture was first applied by European Artists such as Paul Cezanne, Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso.

According to Wikipedia Contemporary African Art (Wiki, 2013) ‘Africa is home to a thriving contemporary art fine art culture. This has been sadly understudied until recently, due to scholars’ and art collectors’ emphasis on traditional art. Notable modern artists include El Anatsui, Marlene Dumas, William Kentridge, Karel, Kendell Geers, Yinka Shonibare, Zerihun Yetmgeta, Odhiambo Siangla, Olu Oguibe, Lubaina Himid, and Bili Bidjocka, Henry Tayali. Art Bienniales are held in Dakar, Senegal, and Johannesburg, South Africa.’

Many contemporary African artists are represented in museum collections, and their art may sell for high prices at art auctions. Despite this, many contemporary African artists tend to have difficult times finding a market for their work. Many contemporary African arts borrow heavily from traditional predecessors. Ironically, this emphasis on abstraction is seen by Westerners as an imitation of European and American cubist and totemic artists, such as Pablo Picasso, Amedeo Modigliani and Henri Matisse, who, in the early twentieth century, were heavily influenced by traditional African art. (Wikki, 2013) Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_art#Contemporary _African_art (Accessed: 29th May 2013).

The author laments and confirms that the above observations ‘ring true’ he says that it is just a hint of some of the difficulties faced by African Artists and broadcasters who wish to use their own roots, traditions and cultural art forms as a means of self-expression in art which is often compare to imitators of African art such as Cézanne, Matisse and Picasso who in the authors opinion made a ‘version’ our art as a hybrid fusion of African art using Western topics.

7.0     Chapter 7.

7.1 Paul Cezanne

According to Wikipeadia, ‘Paul Cézanne’ (1839–1906) Wikipeadia. Was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century. Cézanne can be said to form the bridge between late 19th-century Impressionism and the early 20th century’s new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism. Both Matisse and Picasso are said to have remarked that Cézanne “is the father of us all.”

Cézanne’s often repetitive, exploratory brushstrokes are highly characteristic and clearly recognizable. He used planes of colour and small brushstrokes that build up to form complex fields. The paintings convey Cézanne’s intense study of his subjects.’

Fig.2. Paul Cézanne, Les joueurs de carte (Die Kartenspieler), 1892-95 Oil on canvas – Courtauld Institute, London. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File: Paul_C%C3%A9zanne,_Les _joueurs_de_carte_(1892-95).jpg (Accessed: 7th August 2013).

Fig.3. ‘Cezanne, P’ (1892) Wikipedia. The painting is cubist in form which means that Cézanne had discovered African Art forms by 1892 and began to incorporate it into his own body of Art painting producing 3 dimensional forms on a 2 D surface this is a typical form of African Art. ‘Paul Cézanne’ (1839–1906) the Bathers 1906.  Wikipeadia. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_C%C3%A9zanne                                         (Accessed: 7th August 2013).


7.2 Henri Matisse

It was Matisse who named the art form ‘Proto-Cubism’ or Cubism as it was known. In the author’s opinion Matisse had mistakenly deceive people into thinking that African art was not African at all but a Western form of Art. The terms ‘Cubism’ and ‘Abstraction’ replace the term African art which had a profound impact on 20th Century Western art and culture. The terms disguise the true origins of the art form both intentionally and non-intentionally. It was also Matisse that had misappropriated the bright vibrant colours of African Art for himself by intellectualising it as his own in the disguise of ‘Proto-Fauve or Fauvism in Art.’

According to Flam, J. (1978, p. 11) ‘In 1904 Matisse began to assimilate more thoroughly the lessons of Cezzanne,’ ‘and in the important transitional period of 1904-5 Mattis began to develop a much brighter palette. ‘Flam, J. (1978) Matisse on Art. 2nd edn. Oxford: Phaidon Press Limited.

Fig.4. Matisse, H. 1905-6 Le bonheur de vivre [Oil on canvas]. Barnes Foundation. [Online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File: Bonheur_Matisse.jpg (Accessed: 12th August 2013).

Henri Matisse’s ‘Le bonheur de vivre’

The authors critical analysis of Henri Matisse’s work is as follows: ‘Matisse’s artistic expression in the painting ‘Le Bonheur De Vive’ is heavily influenced by African art as the roots of its origin which is based on abstract forms of expression, vibrant bright colour, and figurative content. This proves that his painting was impacted by using elements of ‘Modern African Art’. Just look at the abstract use of the natural organic shapes such as the exaggerated curves of the human figurative forms Matisse uses to depict the naked bathers, which in actual fact is the way they might have appeared on a hot sunny day on a sandy beach in African during his era. Indeed nudity was riff in Africa back then especially because of the hot climate but it was frowned upon by Europeans who regarded nudity as a distasteful act or sin by pagans.

Perhaps Matisse saw nudity in a different light as an Artist and a free thinker? Maybe he was trying to liberate Europeans from their bigotry? By using nudity as a symbol which would help to free them as the Africans prior to Slavery? Or could it have been an act of mere lust and fantasy by him? A flight of the imagination entwined with eroticism and exoticism on his part?

Since he has supplanted African nude bathers with European ones which strikes me as odd since black nudes would have been more appropriate and authentic as the subject matter. In the painting Matisse romanticises an exotic fantasy without revealing the true identity and origins of his figurative subjects. Further still there could be other reasons for this? Which is that perhaps in the epoch of Matisse in certain parts of Europe people exposed their breasts and private anatomies on sunny sandy beaches, as they do now a days in places like the South of France? If that be the case, then the ingenuity of Matisse was to supper impose those European ‘Primitives’ in place of Africans thought to be primitive at that time, who might have looked more like the ones in the picture of Fig.4. which demonstrates that it was acceptable in the African tradition and culture to be naked or partially clothed.

Fig.5. According to (Nengia, 2013), ‘This picture was taken by white Missionaries from the Basel Convention between 1878-1880…study shows that most of the women are wives of prominent chiefs in the Kingdom.’

Nengia, K. (2013) Opobo Women [Online]. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=416682458438375&set= gm.467740770000103&type=1&theater (Accessed: 23rd August 2013).

The elemental principles of form, colour, abstraction and content used by Matisse in creating ‘Le bonheur de vivre’ have been learnt well from Cezanne. It includes elements of MAA in the way he uses those elements to impact his painting by imposing abstract figurative forms such as the naked bathers, the colourful background and trees set as a densely thick Forest using bright vibrant colours typical of African paintings and the content of nude bathers. The scenery and setting of the painting seems to the author as more credible if the bathers had been naked African bathers rather than European.

To the author it appears that this was one of the methods used to misappropriate and claim the African Art form of 3 Dimensional, Abstraction and Figurative drawings and paintings as European ones. By rename it from African art or ‘Modern African Art’ as the author has named it to ‘Cubism’. Matisse even misappropriates the saturated and unsaturated bright African Colours (MAA colours) as his own, in the guise of the intellectualised study he made of the colours used by African artists as ‘Fauvism’ or ‘Beast of colour’ which was adopted by countless modern European Artists.

The author has investigated Matisse’s theory of ‘Fauvism in art’ and finds the theory holds true. However he draws our attention to the fact that African Artists have always balanced saturated and non-saturated colours to allow saturated colours to ‘sing through without being heard too loud, or seen as too bright’ for the observer. He points out too that by using bright vibrant colours this way it was African Art and the African Artists that discovered this concept long before Henri Matisse.

7.3 Pablo Picasso

Pablo Picasso’s Proto-Cubist style was far less vibrant in colour than Matisse and more stark and brutal as he interoperated African Masks and Carvings.

Fig.6. Picasso, P. (2010) Left ‘Pablo Picasso,’ Bust of a Man, 1908, Right: African Mask. Available at:  http://cubism-coldcreation.blogspot.co.uk/                                (Accessed: 7th August 2013).

In evidence of the fact the author tells us that when he began exhibiting his artwork he too was often compared to Picasso and that for some time even dubbed ‘The Black Picasso.’ ‘At first I was flattered for being called this name and intrigued since I knew Picasso had also been influenced by my African roots and culture in his art, by learning how to interpreter and represent our art especially in 3 dimensional forms such as Masks, Sculpture and Carvings on a 2 dimensional plain, such as canvas using paints, drawings, sculpture or ceramics. I knew too that he had been born in ‘Malaga Spain’ where I had visited; in fact I have been to the very home Picasso lived in as a child; where he grew up learning to paint from his father who had also been a Painter and a Lecturer in Art.

I was aware of the African Moorish influences through the conquest of Spain whom had settled in parts of Spain for over 100 years in places such as Granada which I have also visited. So it was evident to me that his work and mine would have some similarities, except for the fact that my influences are more authentic than his since I am an African and I am drawing from my own cultural expressions, visual language and techniques.’ Although I do like his work Picasso makes a ‘version of MAA’ which is the fusion of African Art and European art where the subject mater is always the European never African.

This concerned me for some time as it occurred to me that more people needed to know the truth about Picasso which is that he copied our Art and Even though I like his work he is the imitator not me or countless African Artists who practice MAA.

Picasso was able to produce new works in his hybrid ‘Modern African style’ far more authentically than Cézanne and Matisse whom had been the prime movers earlier before him “between” 1902-1908. In 1908 Picasso’s work was considered by Western Scholars as primitive to western art culture.

In the author’s opinion: ‘It is important to note that Picasso had a biological connection to Africa, both through his Iberian Moorish heritage and his connection to his grand father and extended family in Cuba which as far as the author is aware Cézannes and Matisse did not have.

Here is a picture of Pablo Picasso on the left in Fig.7. With his living black Cuban relatives who are a descendents of his Grand father who had settled in Cuba leaving Picasso with black Cuban relatives who are alive today. Cuba is an ex-colony of Spain which has a rich African heritage and culture by virtue of the millions of Africans who were transported through Slavery during the Trans Atlantic Slave trade of the 17th C until the end of the 19th Century.

Perhaps this explains why Picasso as a European Modern African Artist was able to capture the African visual language of expression in masks, sculpture and carvings far better as his source of influence which meant he was able to use it to impact his own work by interpreting and translating the African visual art language embodied in the works themselves, as intended by the original African Artist by studying and perfecting his African techniques in his art work after his ‘blue and rose’ period which had been reminiscent of the colours used by Matisse and African Artists.

Fig.7. Cambell, M. (2001) ‘Black Picassos of Cuba are a gift from Dada: contributions from The Sunday Times’, World News, Febuary, pp. 23.


Fig.8. Harris, B. Dr. and Zucker, S. Dr. (2013) Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon. Available at: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/les-demoiselles-davignon.html (Accessed: 23rd August 2013).

According to Heslewood. (1992, p. 12 ) ‘In 1906, the great French Artist Paul Cézanne died and his work was exhibited in Paris. Cézanne’s paintings of bathers impressed many artists, including Picasso who began to pain his own group of bathers. When Picasso tried to pain a portrait of his friend Gertrude Stein he ran into problems. He began it again and again and was never quite happy with it. Picasso had become interested in primitive sculptures and masks he had seen in exhibitions in Paris. Eventually he decided to make his friend’s face look like a mask.

In 1907 Picasso painted Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon. This picture caused great alarm. The painting shocked everyone who looked at it because the women were so ugly. The painting is difficult to understand; we can not tell if the women are inside or outside. Are they on stage or in a studio? Why do some of the women have mask like faces? Is the woman in the bottom right-hand corner of the painting a copy of one of Cézanne’s bathers? Originally Picasso had planed to include a Sailor visiting the women but he didn’t want to add a confusing story to the picture. Picasso was not trying to copy the world exactly as he saw it. He was trying to paint in a new way that people had never thought of before. But people did not really understand or like the painting. Picasso didn’t show the work to the general public for another nine years.’


According to Cubism-coldcreation.blogspot.co.uk (2010)In, the early 1900s, traditional African sculptures sparked the interest among European artists like Picasso. This influence lead to hybrid art forms that came to be the Cubism […]. These new styles were comprised of the “highly stylized treatment of the human figure in African sculptures” and post-Impressionist painting styles as depicted in this example of a Picasso portrait (left). When compared to the African Mask (right), the form of the human facial structures have many common features.” Available at: http://cubism-coldcreation.blogspot.co.uk/ (Accessed: 23rd August 2013).

According to Madamepickwickartblog.com (2013) “Until Pablo Picasso and other modernists turned racial bias in Western art on its head by embracing the expressive power of tribal imagery, the art of tribal cultures was compared to the art of Western children. This supported the notion that adults of ‘inferior’ races were comparable to children of the White race. Chalmers (1992) observes that this overt racism “is covertly embedded in much of what has been called elitist aesthetic and art education theory.” Available at: http://madamepickwickartblog.com/2010/12/picasso-distortion-and-ruthless-attack-on-good-taste/ (Accessed 23rd August 2013).

This article substantiates the author’s claims that the European artists listed in C.A.R.D. in particular Pablo Picasso had embraced African Art which went on to revolutionise much of Europe as a part of the ‘Modern Movement in Art’ and Architect in the 20th century till today.

Fig.9. Picasso, P. (2010) Left: Pablo Picasso, Head of a Woman (1907), Right: Dan Mask. Available at: http://cubism-coldcreation.blogspot.co.uk/(Accessed: 7th August 2013).


Fig.10. Picasso, P. (2010) Left: Picasso detail (1907), Right: African Mask. Available at: http://cubism-coldcreation.blogspot.co.uk/7th (Accessed: August 2013).

7.4 Kazimir Malevich


Fig.11. ‘Kazimir Malevich’ (1911) Wikipedia. Available at:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kazimir_Malevich rd (Accessed: 23 August 2013).

The article in Wikipedia.org (2013) explains how Kazimir Malvich one of the Architect Zaha Hadid’s list of influencers became a ‘Cubo-Futuristic’ Painter after absorbing the principles and influence of ‘Cubism’ which was from Africa, to produce one of his greatest art works ‘Taking in the rye’ in 1911. After 4 years practicing ‘Cubo-Futurist’ ideas and principles learnt from ‘Cubism’ as introduced by the cubists such as Pablo Picasso. After this period Malevich in 1915 laid down the foundations for Suprematism by publishing his very own Manifesto entitled: From Cubism to Suprematism. Kazimir Malevich was influenced by bright vibrant African colours similar to Matisse, See Fig.12. for the authentic African colours used for ‘Oni Ife’ painting by ‘Modern African Artist and contemporary broadcaster Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja for comparison.

7.5 Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja

See the author Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja’s own MAA painting entitled ‘Queen Mother’ Fig. 13. for comparisons to the bright vibrant African colours used by Matisse. The author says painting is a passion which I will use to impact

My contemporary broadcasting, I am an African by birth and I am able to see things 3 dimensionally and I often I like to express my work in abstract figurative ways. In the major project I will impact the contemporary l broadcasting by using the elements of ‘colour’ and ‘form’ and rhythm in my paintings.

Figure 12. D, MacPepple-Jaja. (2013) Oni Ife.  [Oil on Canvas]

MacPepple-Jaja Foundation, London.



Fig.13. D, MacPepple-Jaja. (2013) Queen Mother

[Oil on canvas] MacPepple-Jaja Foundation, London.

7.8 Yinka Shonibare


Fig.14. Stephenfriedmangallery (2013) Yinka Shonibare MBE Self portrait (after Warhol) 3, 2013. Available at: http://www.stephenfriedman.com/exhibitions/past/ 2013/yinka-shonibare-mbe-pop/last-supper-after-leonardo (Accessed: 20th 15th July 2013).

Art21 2012 (2012) Yinka Shonibare MBE Black Artists | “Exclusive” | Art21. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DeTA_m4IKes

(Accessed: 15th July 2013).

Royaloperahouse2012 (2012) Yinka Shonibare on his career as an artist (SHORT VERSION) Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1cKWcICNgxY (Accessed: 20th June 2013).

Art21 2012 (2012) Yinka Shonibare MBE: Being an Artist | Art21 “Exclusive”

Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E2EAKiV7IJc&list= PL171D62DB6DE919A4(Accessed: 20th June 2013).

Yinka Shonibare 2013(2013) Y‘UN BALLO IN MASCHERA (A MASKED BALL)’ 2004 (CLIP).Available at: http://www.yinkashonibarembe.com /artwork/film/ (Accessed: 23rd July 2013).



Fig.15. Stephenfriedmangallery 2013 (2013) Yinka Shonibare MBE Last Supper (after Leonardo), 2013. Available at: http://www.stephenfriedman.com/exhibitions/past/ 2013/yinka-shonibare-mbe-pop/last-supper-after-leonardo (Accessed: 20th 15th July 2013).

See http://theculturetrip.com/africa/nigeria/articles/colonialism-and-cultural-hybridity-an-interview-with-yinka-shonibare-mbe/


Fig.16. Bombsite.com (2013) Yinka Shonibare Big Boy, 2002, wax printed cotton fabric and fibreglass,dimensions variable. Available at:  http://bombsite.com/issues/93/articles/2777 (Accessed: 10th August 2013).


8.0      Chapter 8.  MAA Elements for Future Broadcasting Projects


8.1 Authenticity



According to Yinka Shonibare in an interview with the BBC Collective in 2007 he says,

‘The Dutch produced industrial fabrics internationally for sale to the Indonesian market. The Indonesians didn’t like the factory produced versions of Batik so they tried West Africa and the fabrics was very successful there, and off-course when we see those fabrics we don’t necessary think of Holland or Indonesia. So I like the fact that something which is supposed to be African does carry all this global transactions therefore the question of authenticity is a bit suspect, because authenticity is basically what you create.’


BBC Collective 2007(2007) Nigerian Art and Artists Yinka Shonibare, MBE – Flower Time interview pt 2. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fFYbgJpy HRw&list=PL171D62DB6DE919A4 (Accessed: 5th August 2013).

Kerataditau 2008(2008) Questioning Authenticity in African Art: Yinka Shonibare.

Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WypxE_c6FS0&list=

PL171D62DB6DE919A4 (Accessed: 5th August 2013).


Fig.17. The Culturetrip.com (2013) Nelson’s Ship in a Bottle Yinka Shonibare, MBE. Available at:  (Accessed: 10th August 2013).


8.2 History

African Pharaohs (Black Education, 2011) the author is showing these two images from the past to remind the reader of African history since antiquity which can be used to impact contemporary broadcasting.


Fig.18. African Pharaohs of Egypt http://www.blackeducator.blogspot (2011) Black Education for Human Freedom The African resistance and the History that is in the Present. Available at:http://blackeducator.blogspot.co.uk/2011/01/black-education-for-human-freedom.html (Accessed: 12th August 2013).

In the interviews conducted by the author many interviewees commented that they will like to see more African history brought to life, for example ancient pharaohs and queens can be used to impact contemporary broadcasting.  A good example of this was carried out by the late singer Michael Jackson in his short hit promo movie ‘Remember the Times.’

Michael Jackson vivo 2009 (2009) Remember the Times. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=LeiFF0gvqcc (Accessed: 20th 24h August 2013).

Fig.19. MJ & Team of Remember The Times HQ. http://www.fanpop.com  (2013) Actors: Eddie Murphy-Pharaoh, Iman Abudulmajid – Nefertiti, Spike Lee, MJJ. Available at: http://www.fanpop.com/clubs/michael-jackson/images/ 33396220/title/mj-team-remember-time-hq-photo(Accessed: 13th September 2013).


8.3 Mathematics

The dimensions of the Egyptians ‘Golden Section’ as multiples divisions of the number and ration Phi = 0.618. This knowledge can be used to impact architectural designs and Set designs for MAA contemporary broadcasting.

Fig.20. Theglobaleducationproject.org (200) Dimentions and Mathermatics of The Great Pyramids. Available at:http://www.theglobaleducationproject.org/ egypt/studyguide/gpmath.php  (Accessed: 25th August 2013).


8.4 Architecture

Traditional African Architecture is the oldest and most authentic form of architecture the World has ever known, since it predates most other Art forms.

Fig.21.  D, MacPepple-Jaja. (2013) Pyramids of Giza [Oil on MDF]

MacPepple-Jaja Foundation, London.

The geometry used by ancient Africans in Kemet to design and construct the Pyramids of Giza in their capital ancient City of Egypt. ‘A square pyramid is determined by its centre right triangle whose edges are the pyramid’s end to the base (a), a semi-base (b), and height (h); the angle face inclination is also marked, the mathematical proportion being (Phi).

In the magazine journal Baku art Summer issue 8. (2013, p. 98-109) there is an interview with world famous Iraqi born Architect Zaha Hadid by Joseph Giovannini, illustrated by Jessica May-Underwood. Where, Hadid explains that her influences in Architecture come form the great visionaries of the Russian revolution.


Fig.22. My Modern Met (2013) Zaha Hadid’s Modern Art Centre Unveiled in

China. Available at: http://www.mymodernmet.com/profiles/blogs/zaha-


(Accessed: 7th August 2013).

According to Hadid, Z (Baku, p. 106) ‘Hadid: Malevich, Tatlin, Lissitzky Rodchenko, and Leonidov, whose avant-garde architectural visions had emerged around the time of the Russian revolution but went largely unbuilt. Hadid absorbed the share beauty and intensity of the work, which she factored into her design DNA. It is important to note that these architects and Artists were influenced by Cubo-Futurism.

Fig.23. My Modern Met (2013) Zaha Hadid’s Modern Art Centre Unveiled in                               China. Available at: http://www.m ymodernmet.com/profiles/blogs/zaha-hadid-architects-changsha-meixihu-international-culture-art                                       (Accessed: 7th August 2013).

8.5 Masks

A critical review by the author on the design by Zaha Hadid of the ‘Modern Art Centre in China’ in Fig.22; is that it remarkably resembles the eyes of an African Mask similar to that of Fig.24. Just look at the building from this birds eye view and compare it to the figurative form of the eyes of the Mask. It is clear that Hadid has been influenced by the Cubo-Futuristic elements of MAA.

Fig.24. Pinterest.com (2013) African Masks. Available at: http://pinterest.com/tortorochev/african-masks/(Accessed: 7th August 2013).

8.6 Sculpture

Fig.23. of the ‘Modern Art Centre in China’ also reminds the author too of Shona stone carvings of Southern Africa see Fig.25.

Fig.25. Muvezi.com (2013) Shona African Sculpture fine Stone Art, Mystic Bird Artist: Collen Waduwapera Stone: Springstone H: 108 cm / 42.52″ Available at: http://www.muvezi.com /category/modern/                                                                                         (Accessed: 7th August 2013)


8.7 Fashion and Textiles

As primary research the author interviewed Femi who is one of the early introducers of Modern African Art in contemporary broadcasting on Ben TV. Femi explained that Ben TV is having a fashion show in August 2013. This will be promoting African Fashion Week using a Nigerian Fabric called Ankara.         By doing this they will be impacting Contemporary broadcasting using Fashion and Textiles. Since the media will be invited to the event and as it becomes a popular mode of dressing, Ankara will begin to impact the wider Community who will begin to know more about ‘Modern African Art Fashion and Textiles through broadcasting.’

Fig.26. Beyonce (2013) Ankara Wear, Available at: http://www.saflirista.com/photo/283/beyonce-ankara-wear/                                                                                (Accessed: 15th August 2013).





Fig 27 – Fig 30. Nairaland (2013) Trendy Styles Made With ‘ankara‘ – Fashion (3) – Nairaland Available at: http://www.nairaland.com/62684/trendy-styles-made-ankara/3 (Accessed: 15th August 2013).



8.8 Promotion

During a primary research interview conducted by the author, the Nigerian events Promoter Ife of Ben Television confirmed that he is indeed able to impact contemporary broadcasting through the Element of Promotion.

Fig.31. Trendyafrica.com (2013) ANKARA Night Celebrates African Culture in Texas. Available at: http://trendyafrica.com/art/ankara-night-celebrates-african-culture-in-texas/ (Accessed: 15th August 2013).

Ife explained that he is promoting a Major Event to connect the fabric Ankara with participants of his event to influence the culture similar to Femi his colleague by making peoples aware of the important attached culturally to Ankara by the Nigerian people. He intends to use the element MAA promotion by associating his campaign to a Nigerian historical land mark which is to take place in 2014, which is the Centenary year celebration of the amalgamation of the Northern Protectorate and the Southern Protectorate of Nigeria by British Imperialism in 1914 before Nigeria gained its independence in 1960. Nigerian history (2013) Nigeria‘s Story A Nation was Born Nearly 100 Years Ago. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= gs6Kt0lJY14                                                  (Accessed: 15th August 2013).

8.9 Music

MAA can be used for live broadcasting performances as demonstrated by Beyonce her video ‘Grown Woman’ which uses African symbolism, motifs, photographs and graphics from the great Afro-beat Artist Fela Kuti. MAA has also been used to impact the audio track in a similar manner to be applied on the sound track of the Painting.

Fig.32. Afripopmag.com (2013) Golden African culture The Africanization of Mrs. Carter (Photos + Video). Available at: http://afripopmag.com/2013/06/photos-the-africanization-of-mrs-carter/ (Accessed: 20h June 2013)

P.Square have been described as the twin Michael Jackson of afrobeats music. They are much loved and have a huge international audience at home in Nigeria and abroad their style of popular music called Afrobeats has been impacting contemporary rnb, hip-hop music. Originally they were recording rnb styles, as it grew it became more pronounced in the infectious style of Afrobeats. They have been signed to Kanye west’s own record label and are now making waves in the USA, UK and over the world as music super stars.

Fig.33. Mypsquare.tv (2010) P. Square ft. J.Martins. E No Easy. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dFwBf6fvfTc&list=PL2EEBBAC7635A0E30 (Accessed: 16th August 2013).

Fig.34. korrectnation.com (2012) D’banj’s Oliver Twist (Remixes) hits No. 9 on iTunes UK Top 100. Available at: http://korrectnation.com/?p=29099

(Accessed: 16th August 2013). D’bang’s music has had a positive impact on contemporary UK music and broadcasting using his original style and hits such as Oliver Twist. D’banj (2012) Oliver Twist. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CQP-etYU1ps                                            (Accessed: 16th August 2013).

Nneka has been described as an iconic star reminiscent of the great Robert Nesta Marley (Bob Marley) reincarnated in a female form. She rocks her fans as he did on stage to her hip-hop reggae sounds in a roots rock style. Nneka started at an early age and has begun to be recognised by the music industry for her artistry, after her work was covered by Rita Ora (R.I.P) which became a number smash hit single, proving that music and artists coming from Africa can influence contemporary broadcast music and teach it a thing or two. Nneka is rapidly becoming an international star with a huge Fan base around the world.

Fig.35. Iwantairplay.com (2013) Nneka. Available at: http://www.iwantairplay.com/video/nneka-soul-is-heavy-video                       (Accessed: 16th August 2013).

Fig.36. Fordpublicity (2012) Wiz Kid. Available at: http://fordpublicity.blogspot.co.uk/ 2012/06/microbell-media-group-announces.html (Accessed: 16th August 2013).

Asa is using the African language of Yoruba to impact contemporary music and she has been described as a sensation on the international world of music. She originates from Nigeria and was discovered by a French company.

Fig.37. Iwantairplay.com (2013) Asa. Available at: http://www.iwantairplay.com/albums/asa_asa (Accessed: 16th August 2013).




8.10          Hair

MAA Hairstyles can be used to impact contemporary broadcasting. Many African cultures have different hair constructions and images which are worthy of being used to impact new contemporary broadcasting.



Kox.SK (2010) Skull Deformation by the Mangbetus. Available at: http://www.kox.sk/?p=12319 (Accessed: 16th July 2013)

8.11 Beauty

When shooting a contemporary broadcast MAA Nollywood Movie the Art Director, Set Designer, Costume designer, Director of Photography, Film Director Choreographer and Casting agent must all collaborate to enhance the element of beauty they are using to impact the intended production.

Fig.40. Flygirlblog.com (2013) The “Grown Woman” Music Video in My Eyes.  Available at: http://www.flygirlblog.com/2013/06/beyonce-grown-woman.html (Accessed: 20th June 2013).

8.12    Version (Hybrids or Fusions)

Chris Potash states in his book: Reggae Rasta Revolution Jamaican Music from Ska to Dub (1997, p. 101) That Reggae Producer Sly Dunbar is continually experimenting to find the next direction for Reggae. Sly himself says, “What’s going to happen now is merging the dancehall with R&B and Dancehall with like country western – just to make it different. Some of the engineers are trying to do so many mixes, and [they] start merging a dancehall beat with a soul type of keyboard, and it’s working. So we gonna take it now and experiment on it and try and get some singers to come and write songs to it. It would be an element of the hip-hop beat and part of the dancehall beat instead of changing the dancehall beat to hip-hop beat. And we’re going into samba, the Brazil kind of rhythm – the salsa. We’re going to incorporate the whole of that. You might not sell a million copy or even ten thousand copies, but if people see what you’re trying to do, people probably appreciate the musicians trying to do something that sounds good.  That’s what we are really all about, putting little changes into the music, keep on updating.”

The author agrees with Potash, C. that the idea of experimentation using elements of art and culture such as music or instruments as indicated in his book is a very African creative process. Which is prevalent in most if not all African influenced and inspired music art forms such as Gospel, Blues, Jazz, Salsa, Samba, Reggae, Dancehall, R&B, Hip-Hop, Afro-beat etc. This could be because traditionally it is one of the easiest and fastest ways to come up with something fresh new sounding and if one is lucky invent a new style.

The new style might even end up being very popular. By simply mashing up mixes or extracting elements such as the drum beat or the bass; guitar riffs or keyboard structures and chords it is often possible to come up with a new version taken off the original. Reggae music for decades has been making versions of it releases which has given rise to ‘Reggae Sound Systems’ from the late 50’s and early 60’s with clashes between Sounds using versions of the same music.

Why this is important to the author is because if Africans can take pride in what they produce they can take elements of MAA from their history, heritage and traditions left by their ancestors to impact contemporary broadcasting which will be a good thing for all concerned since they will have found an authentic voice of their own.

8.13   Content

There is a catch phrase which states that ‘Content is King!’                                           From the lessons learnt and knowledge discovered by the author it appears that one of the most important elements that ‘Modern African Art’ can use to impact contemporary broadcasting is ‘African content itself’ in any shape or form. Take for example in the author’s primary interview of Ben TV’s promoter ‘Femi’. Who explained that He started going back to Nigeria After an absence from his homeland for 15 years; when he noticed that there was so much talent in available in that Nigeria ready and waiting to spread its wings across the International waters with their new vibrant and infectious music ‘Afrobeats.’ Therefore he decided to start recording those talents to broadcast on Ben Television to the world.

8.14   Celebrity

Celebrities from Africa and the Diaspora can have a positive impact on contemporary broadcasting by enhancing the value in MAA broadcast production when they appear in them. Artists such as late Fela Kuti used the element of Celebrity to get his message heard.

Fig.41. Fela in Concert at: Evad6832 (2007) Fela Kuti – Teacher Don’t teach Me No Nonsense. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h4AA6EuZe-k&feature=c4-overview-vl&list=PL2EEBBAC7635A0E30 (Accessed: 16th August 2013).

8.15 Traditional Culture

By African Broadcasters such as the author taking elements of MAA from their Traditional art forms and cultures they can adapt them to suite their needs by creating new styles of contemporary broadcasting which reinforces the discovery stated above by Sly and points the author in the direction of fusion when using the MAA element of tradition to impact contemporary broadcast.

Fig.42.  lindaikeji.blogspot (2007) Customs and Traditions of Nigeria + Nigerian Traditions That Need To Be Stopped! Available at:

http://lindaikeji.blogspot.co.uk /2007/10/customs-and-traditions-of-nigeria.html (Accessed: 16th August 2013).

Idatonyec 2010(2010) Opobian traditional music. Available at:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktZpOZQdP_k                                             (Accessed: 15th August 2013)

Idatonyec 2010(2010)Opobo Owu 1.wmv. Available at:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktZpOZQdP_k  Available at: (Accessed: 15th August 2013)

Idatonyec (2010) Ugele Mkpa Nwaotam Movement. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wqcu0fD9aAU (Accessed: 15th August 2013)

8.14 African Dance

The element of African Dance has influenced the world and helped to create new dances in African and abroad. By dancers expressing themselves with their bodies to the rhythms and beats used to impact the music.


Fig.43. Guardian Music Blog (2013) noted in ‘Scene and heard: Funana With growing interest in genres like kuduro, kwaito and coupe-decale, it appears that many westerners (mainly bloggers, it seems) currently have a real penchant for African music.’ Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/music/musicblog/2009/jul/20/scene-and-heard-funana also video on the ‘Funana’ Available at: http://www.youtube.com/ watch?feature=player_embedded&v=SUY_iZGtwfc#at=136

9.       Chapter 9. Conclusions

The Artist Yinka Shinobari stated in his interview that he creates hybrid art using African textile fabrics such as Ankara to impact his subject matter which is mainly about Europeans! As an Artist born in the UK, Yinka lived in Nigeria in his youth before returning back to complete his studies at St. Martins School of Arts. Yinka’s experience is different from that of the author Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja but there are some similarities and dynamic parallels.

According to Diepiri ‘I was born in Kaduna, Northern Nigeria. Where I lived in my formative years till the age of 5; I was then relocated for 1 year to my native Niger Delta where I lived in a village called Igwenga where my great grand father was a Chief. The village has since been re-named Ikot Abasi.       I lived with my great grand mother ‘Dee and my grand mother ‘Evelyn’ with my 3 siblings Awalanyefori, Ibbiwari and idakirinamgim.

At Ikot Abasi I experienced a natural authentic African lifestyle accorded to me as a native. I was sweet and I was very in tune with nature. I did things like walking around the village market taking in the atheistic sounds and smells of my surroundings; from the food and beverages such as moi moi fried fresh fish palm wine sold through African bartering system. The colours I saw were vivid, bright and vibrant. Nature’s forms were very real around me. I was a brave lad so even though the forms I saw seemed real I was not easily frightened or put off from observing nature in a real and meaningful way.

I then moved on to Port Harcourt after visiting Opobo Town where my parents were born, before staying with relatives prior to immigrating to the UK aboard ‘Amadu Belo’ Ship which was the African equivalent to the ‘Wind Rush ship’ in January 1967. This was just before the start of the Nigerian Civil war. I came not as a refugee since my parents were already residing in their own house in the UK where we were called to be with them and also to avoid any potential war that was unfolding which eventually happened, called The Biafran War.

MAA becomes hybrid art or broadcasting when the subject matter is not strictly about Africans; just as the hybrid art of Picasso’s ‘Cubism’ where his subject matter was about Europeans. My broadcasting subject matter is about the beautiful history and culture I experienced in Africa and also about my career life in the UK contemporary broadcasting industry. In respect to MAA I am an authentic MAA artist who makes MAA impacted broadcasting. I am also a MAA Version (hybrid) broadcaster like Shonibare. My Major Project will be impacted in the Version (hybrid) of MAA since I will use MAA to impact the Major broadcasting Project.

It is therefore possible for any artist to participate in ‘MAA the new ‘African Renaissance in broadcasting’ but they must not claim it as their own as Matisse had done previously because it will once again rob the African artists of some thing so central to their very being that is perhaps as intrinsically valuable as their soul, identity or roots. The user of MAA must first believe that ‘MAAM is for good!’ and credit their influences from Africa as they use the elements to impact their hybrid art or authentic MAA. This will open new doors for African Artists to become known for their contribution to the world.

With my new found knowledge I can use MAA to impact 2D, 3D and 4D contemporary broadcasting. My research question relates to my work as a Broadcaster, Producer and Director who has started his own On-line TV Channel called http://www.dmjtv.com; for the purpose of broadcasting authentic MAA and version ‘hybrid MAA’ productions to the world especially Countries like Nigeria, Ghana the UK and USA through Nollywood, similar to Ben TV and Iroko TV. It is expected that once I have build up enough Subscribers on my new channel I will be able to offer more services to this niche market such as video on demand on smart TV’s, movies, music, games digital books and digital applications to impact a world-wide African audience with a global potential reach of 1.7 billion people. Therefore I will use his new found knowledge to continue my research of new elements of MAA I can use to impact future contemporary broadcasting in areas such as film, TV, music, and radio broadcasting.

MAA seen through the eyes of an African broadcaster like me can help solve some of the issues faced by the African community in the past such as lack of good African content, and identity crises experienced by many young African people today due to disconnection from their African roots. MAA can also be used to combat negative stereo-types. The Challenges I faced when producing the Major project was mainly access to the TV Studio, Health and safety Risk Assessment, Finding the right Crew, Finance and Time Management. Therefore I was resourceful, innovative and fortunate to work in collaboration with Alabo Mac who has excellent creative and technical skills which are far more advanced than his years. The other members of my Crew comprised of Tonye Longe and Joe Nkadi as Camera and Lighting Operators.

The authors Essay is important because it advocates a new ‘African Renaissance’ in broadcasting in his chosen field of ‘Broadcast Futures.’            It is also important because Africa is at major cross-roads in terms of development. ‘MAA’ and the ‘MAAM’ can be used as a catalyst for change to help the African people develop their own views and topics using the elements of MAA to dissolve the precipitated narrow negative views sometimes held in contemporary broadcasting. Therefore a meaningful and non-colonialist approach is what is now needed ‘MAA is for good! Its adoption means that the African people all over the world can embrace their past in a new way in order to build a sustainable future together by supporting the ‘Modern African Art Movement’ in this 21 Century as it advocates to people the Manifesto of the ‘Modern African Art Movement.

Lastly on 29th June 2013 the author exhibited his PG05 Major Broadcasting project ‘The Painting’ at EVA London 2013 which was well received in the  major International Conference as a guest ‘Exhibitor and Speaker’ in front of an audience of Professors, Intellectuals, MA Post Graduates, Scholars,  students and Innovators. The title of his presentation was ‘Modern African Art and the Modern African Art Movement, a new approach to Contemporary broadcasting.’ This demonstrates the author has been able to achieve his promise in the PG04 to present his work to an audience. EVA London (2013) Electronic Visualisation and the Arts. Available at: http://www.eva-london.org/                                  (Accessed: 29th June 2013).




Main Study List, Books, Journals and DVD

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Amistad (1997) [DVD-ROM]. Dreamworks. Available: Dreamworks Home Entertainment.

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Arts & Culture, ‘Where Art Thou? Africa Needs investment in Art’. The Growth and Success of Independent Visual Art Spaces and Cultural Centres across Africa. May, ed. No: 528 by Bomi, Odufunade (New African, 2013), pp. 116-120.

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Cavanagh, D. (2000) The Creation Records Story My Magpie Eyes are Hungry for the Prize.  London: Virgin Publishing Ltd.

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Future, Reflections, ‘Black People and Technology. The common perception that Black Filmmakers have to fight against is the idea that Science, Maths and Technology are for White people’. There is a long history of black people being innovators around technology.’  Issue No: 8 by Shayla Harris (BFM Black Filmmaker, 2000), pp. 15.

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Grafton, A. (2002) Leon Battista, Master Builder of the Italian Renaissance. Massachusetts: HarvardUniversity Press.

Grant, R. (2010) 70 Traditional African Recipes. London: South Water.

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Hafner, D. and Goldberg, W. (1993) A Taste of Africa with over 100 traditional African recipes adapted for the modern cook.London: Headline book Publishing.

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Hardy, P. (2012) Download! How The internet Transformed The Record Business.London: Omnibus Press.


Henwood, S. and Vauthier, A. (2010) Rihanna. New York: Rizzoli

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International, Google, ‘Africa is the most Innovative, says Google Chief’. Google’s Executive Chairman and Former Ceo.’ Issue No: 395 by Richard Seymour (African Business, 2013), pp. 38-40.

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Wigan, M. (2006) Thinking Visually. South Africa: Ava Publishing.

Willett, F. (2002) African Art. 3rd edn. London: Thames & Hudson World of Art.

Williams, G. (1971) African Designs from Traditional Sources. 1st edn. New York: Dove Publications Inc.

Williamsson, Sue. (2004) Resistance Art in South Africa. 2nd edn. South Africa: Double Storey Books.

Will Smith Ali (2001) [DVD-ROM]. A Michael Mann Film. Available: HMV.

Wolfe, A. Skillman, D. Maybury-Lerwis, D. and Iman (1997) Tribes by Art. London: Thames & Hudson.


Main Study List from the Internet

About.com Psychology (2013) Pavlov’s Dogs, How Ivan Pavlov Discovered Classical Conditioning. Available at:   http://psychology.about.com/od/classicalconditioning/a/pavlovs-dogs.htm (Accessed: 9th July 2013).

African Creation Energy (2010) Marcus Garvey Talks about Science and African Creation Energy. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kwYZLQ-ExUw

(Accessed: 21st July 2013).

Africa.si.edu. (2009) Shonibare, Y. Available at:


(Accessed: 24th July 2013).

Afripopmag.com (2013) Golden African culture The Africanization of Mrs. Carter (Photos + Video). Available at:: http://afripopmag.com/2013/06/photos-the-africanization-of-mrs-carter/ (Accessed: 20h June 2013)

Akronartmuseum. (2012) El Antsui. Available at:


(Accessed: 24th July 2013).

Ambler, Simon. (2011) The Breakfast Band – L.A.14. Available at:


(Accessed 22nd July 2013).

Art21 (2009) Yinka Shonibare MBE: Being an Artist | Art21 “Exclusive”.

Avialable at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E2EAKiV7IJc&list= PL171D62DB6DE919A4 (Accessed: 5th August 2013).

Art21 2012 (2012) Yinka Shonibare MBE Black Artists | “Exclusive” | Art21. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DeTA_m4IKes

(Accessed: 15th July 2013).

Art21 2012 (2012) Yinka Shonibare MBE: Being an Artist | Art21 “Exclusive.” Available at: http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=E2EAKiV7IJc&list= PL171D62DB6DE919A4 (Accessed: 20th June 2013).

Art History on Stamps (2007) Surematism Kasimir Malevich (1878-1935). Available at:  http://heindorffhus.motivsamler.dk/ arthistory/frame-Style28-Suprematism.htm (Accessed: 9th July 2013).

Artsmypassion.com (2013) Canvas Art and Famous Paintings.

Available at:  http://www.artsmypassion.com/African-Canvas-Art-s/22.htm (Accessed: 9th July 2013).

BBC Collective (2007) Yinka Shonibare, MBE – Flower Time interview pt 1. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= meJHtd5wCBg (Accessed: 5th August 2013).

BBC (2012) Creativity ‘Closely entwined with mental illness’. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-19959565 (Accessed: 4th July 2013).

BBC (2013) Sokari Douglas-Camp’s cross-culture sculptures. Available at:http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/sokari-douglas-camps-cross-culture-sculptures/4841.html (Accessed:  5th August 2013).

Biography.com (2013) Diedo Rivera Biography.  Available at:  


(Accessed: 9th July 2013).

Biography.com (2013) Frida Kahlo Biography. Available at:  


(Accessed: 9th July 2013).

Biography.com (2013) Jean Michel Basquiat Biography. Available at: http://www.biography.com/people/jean-michel-basquiat-185851

(Accessed: 9th July 2013).

Biography.com (2013) Pablo Picasso Biography. Available at: http://www.biography.com/people/pablo-picasso-9440021

(Accessed: 9th July 2013).

Biography.com (2013) Salvardor Dali Biography. Available at:  


(Accessed: 9th July 2013).

Biography.com (2013) Vicent Van Gogh Biography. Available at: http://www.biography.com/people/vincent-van-gogh-9515695

(Accessed: 9th July 2013).

Black Yahshua (2012) The Black Scroll Documentary: The Black Kingdoms. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=fFD pdySn2mA (Accessed 22nd July 2013).

Blogspot (2009) African Art, The top 60 African Artists of All Time. Available at: http://africa60.blogspot.co.uk/                                    (Accessed: 5th S=August 2013).

Bombsite.com (2013) Yinka Shonibare Big Boy, 2002, wax printed cotton fabric and fibreglass,dimensions variable. Available at:  http://bombsite.com/issues/93/articles/2777                                  (Accessed: 10th August 2013).

Busineswire.com (2013) Nneka to Headline The Africa Centre’s Summer Festival. http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/ 20130715005456/en/Nneka-Headline-Africa-Centre%E2%80% 99s-Summer-Festival (Accessed: 4th August 2013).

Brabu301 (2009) Duda-dja txiga nha bes. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=SUY_iZGtwfc#at=136 (Accessed: 17th August 2013).

British Library (2013) Vitruvius’s Ttheory of Beauty.  Available at: http:// http://www.bl.uk/learning/artimages/bodies/vitruvius/proportion.html (Accessed: 14th August 2013).

Cenral Source (2011) NUBIA: The “Forgotten Kingdom [of Kush]” (The Movie) – Part 1. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NuI JsGkV2h4 (Accessed 22nd July 2013).

Cenral Source (2011) NUBIA: The “Forgotten Kingdom [of Kush]” (The Movie) – Part 2. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=wH68KKNtzUg (Accessed 22nd July 2013).

Cenral Source (2011) NUBIA: The “Forgotten Kingdom [of Kush]” (The Movie) – Part 3. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=plrTN49PiSA (Accessed 22nd July 2013).

Cenral Source (2011) NUBIA: The “Forgotten Kingdom [of Kush]” (The Movie) – Part 4. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=vYoeMpqwPaY (Accessed 22nd July 2013).

Cenral Source (2011) NUBIA: The “Forgotten Kingdom [of Kush]” (The Movie) – Part 5. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9-xbgNXjm8k (Accessed 22nd July 2013).

Classicstyle.org (2004) Bauhaus movement. The influence from Dutch De Stijl Available at: http://www.classicstyle.org/bauhaus-movement-de-stijl.html (Accessed: 29 June 2013).

Club Med (2013) African Primitivism. Available at:

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/album/african-tribal-arts-and-modern-and-contemporary-arts-library/256514426.html   (Accessed: 11th June 2013)

Collins, K(2013) BBC to halt 3D programming after Doctor Who special this year. Available at: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archi


PG03 Business and Innovation Group Work

Open innovation or Disruptive Innovation

The Group meet on Tuesday 12 th Feb 2013 and were placed in groups which reflected the skills of the individuals based on the types of persons were in the group e.g: Creative, Organisers etc.  This was around the principles of ‘Open Innovation and how we could create new networks and ideas.

After learning how our ideas could create new networks and what types of products and values we could generate we considered the brief related on how each group could develop solutions for an ageing population. Each group is set up on Project Management tool Pivitol Tracker’ used by group members on tasks and projects. 

The Group chose to use Pivotal Tracker which was introduced to us by the Lecturer.The group is to engage in ‘Rapid Application development’. To: Build and test, build and test it again. We chose the Pivitol Tracker software since the Project Management system can not be hard or it becomes cumbersome. Pivitol Tracker is good since it is a new way of getting projects completed and you can use it to dump things. Prince 2, Six Sigma are the old ways used for Project Management since they are too cumbersome.

Agile is also a SaaS based Project Management software tool-kit that is much better for ‘Lean stripping’ by cutting out some of the fat from a project. It’s main features below have been taken from the website: 


The Main Features are:

  • It has Advanced visualization for easy planning task allocation and capacity management.
  • Comprehensive analytics and real-time visibility into quality, code, and progress.
  • Seamless IDE integration so developers can work in the environment they prefer
  • Projects insight, teams, and geographies to successfully scale Agile
  • Portfolio integration or cross-function collaboration and end-to-end agility

Scrum is another Project Management tool and is a free software available at: www.scrum.org: http://www.scrum.org/Resources/What-is-Scrum

Basecamp is also a Project Management tool that can be used for team projects and is available at: http://basecamp.com/ 

Prince 2 Older Methods used for Project  Management such as ‘Prince 2’ are fast becoming irrelevant since they are cumbersome and full of technical jargon’s which must first be understood by technocrats and can get in the way of the team being able to use the method and systems to get the job done, unless they have a mastering of the Methodologies being used.

It is important to use a Projects based application for Pre-Sale, Development and Roll-out of a product or service which must take no longer than 2 weeks or a maximum of 1 month to develop.

Do not use emails the chosen tool needs to be something common to the group of users in the development team as a good scrum tool such as Pivital tracker. Note that 5 to 10 stories shows that a group has absorber how to build a front end methodology using Pivitol Tracker. Condition of Acceptance or COA, the project ends when the person who owns the product signs it off with a specific description of when the project is finished.

A few group members such as Diepiri set up an account on Pivitol Tracker and passed on their emails to Phil the lecturer who set those who are not yet on Pivital tracker up with new accounts. The scrum began with the group deciding what needed to be carried out and the PM Polly was to use the Scrum aspects to highlight the tasks by each member. Diepiri was able to carry out the Research work that was delegated to him on Pivital tracker and in the last meeting and write his story on what he had investigated as directed to the team. There was some complications since the group was unable to see his contribution since as the lecturer Phil was able to point out it had not been save so they save it and it was able to appear in the story timeline.

26/02/13                                                                                                                The group Project Manager Polly.

The Groups brief

Campaign to end Loneliness- Request for Proposal

List of questions to ask the Client!

Who have they consulted with?

Show current situation – problem which represents the opportunities.

Ability to Plan using Project Management Communication Tools

Finding the right tools to use such as:

Pivotal Tracker: Short stories

Logical framework see:                                                                            http://www.adb.org/documents/using-logical-framework-sector-analysis-and-project-design-users-guide

Team box: http://www.teambox.com

Evernote: http://www.evernote.com

Skype: http://www.skype.com

Face Book: http://www.facebook.com (Primary engagement tool)

Creative Destruction

Internet is about doing old things in a new way. How to take creative processes and blend into Project Management. The technology has to be built for purpose and the team must know how to use the tools. Prioritisation and delegation: stops with the group. Stress management: know when to unplug and walk away

Lecture by Immersive who are based in London Bridge

Ability to be able to act on the cuff to briefs. Some Clients come without a brief so you will have to design the brief for them. Immersive did the Stage work of the Olympic Rings at the London 2012 Olympic games. The come from a Music Label Background and have moved onto creative projects such as fantastic stage work for groups and artists such as Pendulum, Chase n Status etc. They will never do the same thing twice! They are in 60% Corporate and 40% Entertainment based. They own the Media Servers which they use for the projection Mapping and have since sold their main server to a company which they work with. They have all the Art Directors, Producers, spacial Designers, Architects, Interior Designers, Artists, visual Affects, Graphics, Designers etc. They want to work with Ravensbourne Digital Art School to do something for Green Peace in 2 months. They tend to work using Cinema 4 D, 3D Max, Maya, After Effects etc. for Projection Mapping Projects. They use animators too in their team. No single person in the studio responds to a project brief on their own.

The Immersive Brief

The Antarctic is a natural reserve for all mankind, Green peace is trying to put on an event on the 20th April using Projection Mapping on Building to highlight the fact that companies are now exploring the Antarctic for mineral reserves and in doing so they are causing more green gasses to escape to the atmosphere, thus melting more ice caps which provide natural habitats to animals such as the Polo bears and help to protect our environment against rising sea levels and flash flooding.

Immersive is an organisation with people who are more creative or technical, it is a democratic organisation they has a head who is the Creative Director in team. Doing work for Charities and cool stuff that we want to do such as music events, Dance Show for artists such as Errick Prince which was an epic production for Immersive. Sometime the process is unpaid and it can take up to 3 months writing the brief and at other times it sometimes takes just a few paragraphs.

Social networking websites such as twitter and face book are very good tools for The best marketing to your peers. You can deliver stuff no-one else can do by using Programmers of video and art, commercials, and music concerts by using ‘Creative Programmers’. E.G: Someone who is writing software you can use to be more creative. 

Projection Mapping consists of images and clips set to a sound design. By video projecting onto real object such as buildings, people, cars that have a 3 D relief. You can make content using depth and shadows etc. There are two other companies apart from Immersive who are also leaders in the field these are NTVJ and Obscure Digital did the ‘Vimeo awards’ for Projection Mapping on the Gougnhin Museum in New York. This was probabliy achieved using at least 6 projectors with an aspect ration of 4 x 3 or 6 x 9 costing £½ million in projectors.

A Lecture by MA Student Michael Larson was attended by Diepiri unfortunately he did not own a mac so he could not participate in the actual process of projection VJing using the following software. However Diepiri was able to follow and observe the whole process taking notes of the free websites to download all the necessary software for VJ projections. Which can be used for Projection Mapping similar to what has been taught by Immersive. The sites go to download all the VDMXS Professional VJ Software for free on a mac OS such as a laptop to get started are: 

Pitching                                                                                                                 See book on pitching by Chip and Dan Heath and also how to build early adopters.

PG04 Concept and Prototype Research Proposal

Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja

MA Broadcast Futures


Project Leaders:

Reg Sanders

Course Tutor Broadcast Futures Post graduate Studies

Britta Pollmuller

Senior Lecturer Interactive Digital Media, Deputy Course Director Postgraduate Studies

Jeremy Gardner

Course Director Postgraduate Studies

PG04 Module:

 Concept and Prototype + Research Proposal: deadline end of June 2013

Research Proposal (2494 Words) excluding bibliography, pictures & references

Concept and Prototype leading to Major Project

Student Number: 95829712

Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja

MA Broadcast Futures


Project Leaders:

Reg Sanders

Course Tutor Broadcast Futures Post graduate Studies

Britta Pollmuller

Senior Lecturer Interactive Digital Media, Deputy Course Director Postgraduate Studies

Jeremy Gardner

Course Director Postgraduate Studies

PG04 Module:

 Concept and Prototype + Research Proposal: deadline end of June 2013

Research Proposal (2496 Words) excluding bibliography, pictures & references

Concept and Prototype leading to Major Project

Student Number: 95829712


The author is seeking to enhance knowledge and understanding in relation to the research question to be addressed. Which is “How can elements of ‘Modern African Art’ be used to impact contemporary broadcasting?


Contemporary Africa Art is described in (Wikki, 2013) as follows ‘Africa is home to a thriving contemporary art fine art culture. This has been sadly understudied until recently, due to scholars’ and art collectors’ emphasis on traditional art. Notable modern artists include El Anatsui, Marlene Dumas, William Kentridge, Karel, Kendell Geers, Yinka Shonibare, Zerihun Yetmgeta, Odhiambo Siangla, Olu Oguibe, Lubaina Himid, and Bili Bidjocka, Henry Tayali. Art Bienniales are held in Dakar, Senegal, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Many contemporary African artists are represented in museum collections, and their art may sell for high prices at art auctions.

Despite this, many contemporary African artists tend to have difficult times finding a market for their work. Many contemporary African arts borrow heavily from traditional predecessors. Ironically, this emphasis on abstraction is seen by Westerners as an imitation of European and American cubist and totemic artists, such as Pablo Picasso, Amedeo Modigliani and Henri Matisse, who, in the early twentieth century, were heavily influenced by traditional African art. (Wikki, 2013) Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_art (Accessed: 29th May 2013).

Subject Area, Aims and Objectives

The concept and theories of ‘Modern African Art’ is introduced by the author who says ‘Think of it as an “African Renaissance” the Art form that stems from way back throughout the ages from the cradle of mankind in Africa consisting of key aspects and elements such as 1.Colour, 2.Form, 3.Rhythm, 4.Mood and 5.Sound which can be applied to impact contemporary media, production and broadcasting. To achieve empathy conditioning, by skilfully using those elements as new techniques derived from traditional and contemporary African Art, Music and Culture.

Historical Context Who is saying what about Modern African Art?

The Significance of E.S. Tingatinga and how his Modern African Art impacted Western contemporary broadcast media and production. The ThorupART organisation is talks about Modern African Artist called Tingatinga as referred to in the article Tingatinga from Craft to Art (ThorupART, 2013). They say that In the late 1960s an impoverished Tanzanian man realised that tourists and local ex-pats liked buying souvenirs from their trip to bring back home, and so he started producing paintings of animals to sell. His name was Edward Saidi Tingatinga, and at the time he did not know that this would be the beginnings of a unique African paining style, which has come to bear his name, and which continues to this day.’

Contemporary Context

‘The exhibition in Portalen showcases the cheeky, humorous and colourful contemporary Tingatinga paintings that move between colorful kitsch and captivating art. E. S. Tingatinga painted simple designs of African animals, birds on the savannah or situations from village life. Pragmatically, he used the materials at hand; enamel paint on hard board – creating his own distinctive expression of naive, colourful designs with glossy surface.’ ThorupART (2013). Tingatinga from Craft to Art. Available at: http://www.tingatingastudio.com/menu_events.html. (Accessed 15th May 2013). Figure 1. Tingatinga, E. (2010) African Animation [0nline]. Available at: http://paulacallus.blogspot.co.uk/2010/03/tinga-tinga-gets-bad-press.html (Accessed: 10th May 2013).

Theoretical Context

The theories, concepts and ideas of E.S. Tingatinga have been characterised in the box office smash hit animation movie ‘The Lion King’ which demonstrates “How elements of ‘Modern African Art’ can be used to impact contemporary broadcasting?

In Tingtinga’s case it was the naïve element of his animal paintings, the colours in his work that were able to be applied by the film studio to impact both Lion king and Madagascar.

Figure 1. Walt Disney (2012). Presents The Lion King Poster jpeg. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Lion_King_poster.jpg (Accessed: 16th May 2013).

There is a similarity between the laughing Hyenas depicted in animation movie ‘The Lion King’ and those in Tingatinga naïve animal paintings.

Figure 2. Tingatinga (2013) From Craft to Art. Available at: http://www.tingatingastudio.com/menu_events.html(Accessed: May 15th 2013).

The hit animation movie ‘Madagascar’ also applies Tingatinga’s unique naïve style to its broadcast animation production. Figure 3. below is DreamWorks Animation (2013) Madagascar (Animation Movie) CoverAvailable at: 

http://entertainmentbench.blogspot.co.uk/2013/02/madagascar animation-movie.html (Accessed: 16th May 2013).

‘Madagascar’ resonates with the work of Tingatinga read article (livinganimationland.blogspot.co.uk, 2012) where they confirm the African influences such as colour and visual style as follows. ‘Everything else looks fantastic! The jungles of Madagascar are lush, colorful, and beautiful, making a wonderful world to watch our characters interact in. One of the things I love about this movie is that it has such a bold visual style that fits the film perfectly. It’s not your typical photo-realistic animated film; it has its own unique and quirky style which works on a number of levels. The visual style is heavily influenced by African art; it’s very angular and is impressionistic. It doesn’t worry about being 100 percent accurate or detailed, yet you can still tell what things are. The spirals on Gloria’s elbow in the picture above are a great example of this sort of African impressionism. That’s kind of how everything else in the movie is so it makes for an amazing art style.


The research methods used for discovering new insights, concepts and ideas are by testing relevant theories and concepts through prototyping and experimenting on African paintings, models, digital photography, investigating science and nature, academic journals, reading widely, visiting museums and by using video as a tool for learning. The results can then be applied as new techniques to create ‘fresh new broadcast media content’ using the discoveries of the five elements investigated together with the authors own concept and theory of ‘Modern African Art’ to create the ‘Broadcast futures Major project.’ The prototypes produced shall consist of photographic experiments to ivoke empathy from the viewer of the major project.

The Major project will be performed by ‘Alabo Mac as the Painter’ to a song 3mins 20 sec long called ‘The Painting’. It will depict mental health in an Artist to highlight the plight of suffers of the disorder in an empathetic way by using elements of ‘Modern African art’ to impact the Contemporary broadcast media production.

Ethical Dimensions of the Research

Who is saying something about Empathy in Contemporary Broadcast? Alex Gabbay is saying something important about Empathy in Contemporary Broadcast. ‘Man’s capacity for kindness and compassion is overshadowed only by his ability to be as cruel and destructive. Can empathy resolve issues of aggression and subjugation, where wars, politics and economic sanctions have failed? Love Hate and Everything in Between looks into the world of neuroscience, psychology, education and technology to explore the extraordinary relevance of empathy in today’s increasingly interconnected world.’ In his film ‘Love Hate & Everything In Between.’ (Monkey & Me Films Presents A Film By Alex Gabbay 2013) Available at: http://www.empathyfilm.com/ (Accessed: 10th May 2013). Alex Gabbay’s explains why empathy is so important to today’s society and contemporary broadcasting.

Why Empathy?

The author will use his major project to contribute significantly to the ‘plight of sufferers of mental health disorders using empathy as a conditioning of subconscious understanding, because he agrees with what Alex Gabbay is saying about empathy being essential to demonstrate our capacity for kindness in Contemporary Broadcasting. The 5 elements of African Art discovered will be applied to impact the production by stimulating our capacity for kindness in an empathetic way.

disconnected1 Figure 4. (2013) Empathy [Print on Cotton], Artist: Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja, copyright MacPepple-Jaja Foundation, London.

5 Elements of Modern African Art being considered

1. Colour queen mamaFigure 5. (2013) Queen Mama [Oil on Canvas], Artist: Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja, copyright MacPepple-Jaja Foundation, London.

Subtractive Primary Colours

Figure 6. (2013) Subtractive Primary Colours. [Digital] Colour Therapy Healing Available at: http://www.colourtherapyhealing.com/colour/subtractive_primary_colours.php

The picture below is by the late South African Wood Carver from Kwa-Zulu Natal.

Figure 7. Isaac Sithole (2012). Issac Sithole Tribute Exhibition. [paint on wood]. Available at: http://news.artsmart.co.za/2012/02/isaac-sithole-tribute-exhibition.html (Accessed 12th May 2013).

Issac Sithole masterly demonstrates his use of colour in African Art. The colours he chooses are vibrant and bold they can be applied by the author to impact the contemporary major project by giving it African colours in the following combinations blue, red, red and blue, black and blue, orange and black, red and black but toned down to create a darker and colder look to suit the contemporary style of music which it is being applied to, which is a rap song. In order to achieve this when shooting the project, the author will be using coloured gels, coloured lenses, lighting, green or blue screen as a backdrop for special effects at post production stage. In this artwork notice how Sithole has applied the primary colours red, blue and yellow and secondary colours orange, green and purple, with black and white used as main colours for balance, to allow all the saturated bright colours to shine through!

2. Form

22Figure 8 . (2013) Pyramids of Giza – Oil on mdf, Artist: Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja, copyright MacPepple-Jaja Foundation

Traditional African Art as described in (Wiki, 2013) ‘Traditional art describes the most popular and studied forms of African art which are typically found in museum collections. Wooden masks, which might either be human or animal or of mythical creatures, are one of the most commonly found forms of art in western Africa. In their original contexts, ceremonial masks are used for celebrations, initiations, crop harvesting, and war preparation. The masks are worn by a chosen or initiated dancer. During the mask ceremony the dancer goes into deep trance, and during this state of mind he “communicates” with his ancestors. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_art (Accessed: 20th May 2013).

Chinua Achebe

Figure  9. Harlemworldmag.com (2013). Memorial Tribute: Chinua Achebe’s Echo (video). Available at: http://harlemworldmag.com/2013/03/31/memorial-tribute-chinua-achebes-harlem-echos-video/ and http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=ON7-G0XqJrc#at=31 (Accessed: 15th May 2013) Form in the major project will be conveyed in the lyrical content performed by the actor. To understand form it is important to seek knowledge of it from a great African story teller Dr. Chinue Achebe. The Form and content of African stories used in story telling by the famous writer and broadcaster late Dr. Chinue Achebe. In the (Paris Review, 2013). Achebe says ‘I loved stories, stories told in our home, first by my mother, then by my elder sister—such as the story of the tortoise—whatever scraps of stories I could gather from conversations, just from hanging around, sitting around when my father had visitors. ‘I encountered stories of other people and other lands.

In one of my essays, I remember the kind of things that fascinated me. Weird things, even, about a wizard who lived in Africa and went to China to find a lamp . . . Fascinating to me because they were about things remote, and almost ethereal.’ ‘I instinctively took sides with the white people. They were fine! They were excellent. They were intelligent. The others were not . . . they were stupid and ugly. That was the way I was introduced to the danger of not having your own stories. There is that great proverb—that until the lions have their own historians, the history of the hunt will always glorify the hunter. That did not come to me until much later. Once I realized that, I had to be a writer. I had to be that historian. It’s not one man’s job. It’s not one person’s job. But it is something we have to do, so that the story of the hunt will also reflect the agony, the travail—the bravery, even, of the lion

3. Rhythm

inevitabilityFigure 10. (2013) Inevitability – Oil on Canvas, Artist: Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja, copyright MacPepple-Jaja Foundation

In the song ‘The Painting’ rhythm will be applied in terms of African drums, Hi-hat, bongos, tom-toms, guitar, and with the lyrics of the rapper in rhythmic style as a modern day Griot. In the article keepers of History (Lott, 2012) it says that ‘Griots and Griottes—have been around for a millennium. Over time, the griots’ function has changed as society evolved. Once, the male griots and female griottes were historians, genealogists, advisers to nobility, entertainers, messengers, praise singers—the list goes on. Today, they perform on television and radio and record CDs. Many are popular singers who reinterpret traditional songs, giving new meaning to old words—”time binding,” In (Priebe, R..2013) Griots hold the memory of West Africa. Available at: http://news.psu.edu/story/140694/2002/05/01/research/keepers-history (Accessed: 17th May 2013).

4. Mood

23Figure 11. (2013) Oni Ife – Artist : Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja,copyright MacPepple-Jaja Foundation

Traditionally African Griots always have set the mood in ceremonies. As modern day Griots, Nas and Damien Marley in their video ‘Patience’ deliver raps with a message whilst setting the mood further still by using ancient African Civilisations as the backdrop imagery making the piece even more potent and compelling. Nas & Marley (2010) Patience. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =c9VQye6P8k0. (Accessed:17th May 2013).

Figure 12. Nas & Marley featuring Amadou & Mariam (2010) Patience. Available                                        at: http://collider.com.au/projects/Damian_Marley_and_Nas_-_Patience/(Accessed: 17th May 2013).

Figure 13. Nas & Marley featuring Amadou & Mariam (2010) Patience. Available at: http://collider.com.au/projects/Damian_Marley_and_Nas_-_Patience/(Accessed: 17th May 2013).

5. Sound

sheemanFigure 14. (2013) Tribal Ancestors [Oil on Canvas], Artist: Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja, copyright MacPepple-Jaja Foundation, London.

Figure 15 (2013) A CELEBRATION OF AFRO-BEAT TONY HILLIER’S WORLD OF MUSIC. Available at: http://mojowire.net.au/2013/03/01/a-celebration-of-afro-beat-tony-hilliers-world-of-music-march-1-2013/ (Accessed: 17th May 2013). When considering ‘Modern African Art’ the sounds of Afro-Beats, palm wine music of Rex Lawson and the Fuji of King Sunny-Ade are the kinds of authentic traditional African music that can be used as a dynamic force. The late African Superstars Fela, Anikulapo, Ransome, Kuti is the originator of the Afro-beat sound which readily blends Afro-jazz and funk. If Fela was alive today perhaps he would have also blended afro-beats nicely with Hip-hop. Perhaps that is one of the reasons he has become so appealing to the Hip-hop generation that are telling his story to the World on Broadway. On website (Fela.net, 2013) they say that ‘Fela contended that AfroBeat was a modern form of dance-able, African Classical music with an urgent message for the planet’s denizens.’ (Fela.net, 2013) The Phenomenon. Available at: http://www.fela.net/bio/(Accessed: 16th May 2013). Fela Musical! (2009) Off Broadway. Available at:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fB0GepZMzKU (Accessed: 16th May 2013).

Work Plan The author’s prediction of the Form of the Final presentation:

  • It will be on a DVD or Internet-based with a written thesis?
  • It will have a summary sheet of a survey conducted on the research question.
  • It will incorporate some of his own artwork
  • It will be presented if required to a small audience.

Digital Photographic studies and painting artworks are the result of the authors experimentation and prototyping with elements of Modern African Art some of those images will be exhibited at the Creative 2013 Summer Exhibition.

Main Study List and Bibliography

Books and Journals

Banksy (2006) Wall and Peace.  London: Century. Bayer, H. and Gropius, W. (1959) Bauhaus 1919-192. 3rd edn. USA: HarvardUniversity. Grieder, T. (1996) Artist and Auience. 2nd edn. Austin Texas: McGraw. HillMiroeeff, N. (2003) An Introduction to Visual Culture. 2nd edn.Suffolk, UK: St Edmundsbury Press. Lundberg, J. (2010) Guidelines for Developing an Interactive Multimedia Prototype based on comparison of Low-and-High-fidelity prototypes in usability testing. Master’s Thesis in Media Technology, StockholmUniversity. O’Brian, P. (1076) Pablo Ruiz Picasso, a Biography. London: Collins. Oyekunle, S. (1999 p12-13) BFM Hollywood: Hollywood and Africa. London: BFM Media. Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010) Cite Them Right the Essential Reference Guide. 8th edn.USA: Palgrave Study Skills. Slater, J. (1991) Modern Television systems, to HDTV and Beyond, 1st edn.London: Pitman publishing. Taschen, A. and Schaewen, D. (2005) African Style. London: Taschen Taylor, R. (2012) RTS Digital World Conference 6: Will.i.am, (October 2012), pp.26-28. Warncke, C. and Walther, I. (2007) Pablo Picasso 1881-1973: Part 1 The Works 1890-1936, pp.159. London: Taschen. The Internet About.com Psychology (2013) Pavlov’s Dogs,How Ivan Pavlov Discovered Classical Conditioning. Available at:   http://psychology.about.com/od/classicalconditioning/a/pavlovs-dogs.htm (Accessed: 9th March 2013).

Amazondcl.com (2013) Amazon Development Centre London. Available at: http://www.amazondcl.com/index.html (Accessed: 10 May 2013). Art History on Stamps (2007) Surematism Kasimir Malevich (1878-1935). Available at:  http://heindorffhus.motivsamler.dk/arthistory/frame-Style28-Suprematism.htm (Accessed: 29 April 2013). Artsmypassion.com (2013) Canvas Art and Famous Paintings. Available at:  http://www.artsmypassion.com/articles.asp?ID=270 (Accessed: 9th March 2013). BBC, Roberts, M. (2012) Creativity ‘Closely entwined with mental illness’. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-19959565 (Accessed: 29 April 2013). Biography.com (2013) Vicent Van Gogh Biography. Available at: http://www.biography.com/people/vincent-van-gogh-9515695 (Accessed: 27th April 2013). Biography.com (2013) Diedo Rivera Biography.  Available at:  http://www.biography.com/people/diego-rivera-9459446 (Accessed: 27th April 2013). Biography.com (2013) Pablo Picasso Biography. Available at: http://www.biography.com/people/pablo-picasso-9440021 (Accessed: 27th April 2013). Biography.com (2013) Frida Kahlo Biography. Available at:  http://www.biography.com/people/frida-kahlo-9359496 (Accessed: 27th April 2013). Biography.com (2013) Salvardor Dali Biography. Available at:  http://www.biography.com/people/salvador-dal%C3%AD-40389 (Accessed: 27th April 2013). Biography.com (2013) Jean Michel Basquiat Biography. Available at:  http://www.biography.com/people/jean-michel-basquiat-185851 (Accessed: 27th April 2013). Classicstyle.org (2004) Bauhaus movement. The influence from Dutch De Stijl. Available at: http://www.classicstyle.org/bauhaus-movement-de-stijl.html (Accessed: 09 March 2013). Club Med (2013) African Primitivism. Available at: http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/album/african-tribal-arts-and-modern-and-contemporary-arts-library/256514426.html (Accessed: 16th May 2013) DMJTV.COM (2012) Vibezkid, Peaceful. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O9oVJ6GnLiE (Accessed: 6th April 2013). Dream Works Animation (2012) “Hilarious! The Best ‘Madagascar’ Yet!” Available at: http://www.madagascarmovie.com/(Accessed: 16th May 2013). Droste, M. (2002) Bauhaus Archiv. Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ZXB8rX5AsgUC&oi=fnd&pg=PA6&dq=bauhaus&ots=_lIJP6-zp8&sig=nTWMaEw5-0rIAs-MDW2jCM2qvvI#v=onepage&q=bauhaus&f=false (Accessed: 11/01/13). Fela Musical! (2009) Off Broadway. available at:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fB0GepZMzKU (Accessed: 16th May 2013) Hillary, T. (2013). A CELEBRATION OF AFRO-BEAT TONY HILLIER’S WORLD OF MUSIC. Available at: http://mojowire.net.au/2013/03/01/a-celebration-of-afro-beat-tony-hilliers-world-of-music-march-1-2013/ (Accessed: 17th May 2013). Fela.net (2013) The Phenomenon. Available at: http://www.fela.net/bio/(Accessed: 16th May 2013). Gabbay, A. (2013) Monkey & Me Films Presents A Film By Alex Gabbay: Love Hate & Everything In Between. Available at: http://www.empathyfilm.com/ (Accessed: 1st April 2013). Groovemonter (2009) Cardinal Rex Lawson “So Ala Temen – Yellow Sisi – Love Mu Adure”. Available at: http://www.youtube/watch?v=TFilIFOlZe8 (Accessed: 15th April 2013). Hels. (2008) Le Corbusier and the Bauhaus. Available at: http://melbourneblogger.blogspot.co.uk/2008/12/in-1929-le-corbusier-created-his.html (Accessed: 15 April 2013). Iroking.com (2013) Nigerian Music Anytime Anywhere. Available at: http://iroking.com/ (Accessed: 03 May 2013). Iroko Partners Limited (2012) Watch the Latest Movies. Available at: http://www.irokotv.com/ (Accessed: 10 April 2013). Johnson, R. (1997) Examining the Validity Structure of Qualitative Research.  Available at: http://www.dralessandro.com/subpages/PDFfiles/Validity%20Structure.pdf (Accessed: 10 April 2013). Lee, T. (2001) Development of Interactive Experience Scenarios for Interactive Media Design Applying Behavioural Prototyping Methods.  Available at: http://www.idemployee.id.tue.nl/g.w.m.rauterber/conferences/CD_doNotOpen/ADC/final_paper/541.pdf (Accessed: 9th March 2013). Magpie’s Blog 1759 (2013) Top 10 Manga Artists. Available at: http://1759magpie.wordpress.com/top-10-manga-artists/ (Accessed: 16 April 2013) Marshall, C. (2012) Gestalt Laws of Pragnanz. Available at: http://prezi.com/tabenvtvsdzy/chris-marshall-gestalt-laws-of-pragnanz/ (Accessed: 9th March 2013). Media Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Available at: http://www.nada.kth.se/utbildning/grukth/exjobb/rapportlistor/ 2010/ rapporter10/lundberg_johan_10005.pdf (Accessed: 9th March 2013). Mental Health Foundation (2013) Help us connect Older People and improve their mental health. Available at:  http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/ (Accessed: 29 April 2013). Michael Jackson (2011) Moon Walker- 8/10. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MLyz7GUWgU0 (Accessed: 28 April 2013). Michael Jackson (2009) Earth Song. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XAi3VTSdTxU (Accessed: 28 April 2013). Mind (2013) Mind for better mental health Available at:  http://www.mind.org.uk/ (Accessed: 29 April 2013). Musichertz.blogspot.co.uk (2013) Fela Kuti Aafro-Beat Revolutionary. Available at:  http://musichertz.blogspot.co.uk/2013/03/fela-kuti-afro-beat-revolutionary.html (Accessed: 16th May 2013). Mysterious2b (2006) Rhythm is a Dancer. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WMPM1q_Uyxc (Accessed: 28 April 2013). Nas & Marley, D. (2010) Patience. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c9VQye6P8k0 (Accessed: 17th May 2011). Nas & Marley, D. (2011) Patience (Distance Relatives) Lyrics Video.  Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uLkKD2hFnIc (Accessed: 17th May 3013). NHS Choice (2013) Schizophrenia Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Schizophrenia/Pages/Introduction.aspx   (Accessed: 29 April 2013). Nobelprize.org (2013) Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936). Available at: http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/pavlov/readmore.html (Accessed: 9th March 2013). OffDaGroundTV (2012) Fuse ODG. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0IqNxQUGL8 (Accessed 16th April 2013). OleMB (2011) Triangles, triangles, triangles everywhere. Available at: http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread666319/pg1 (Accessed: 15 April 2013). Ortez, O. (2013) Light is the Opposite of Darkness it holds the Secrete of the Universe. Available at: http://osmanozter.org (Accessed: 29th March 2013). Parlophone (2009) Tinie Tempah-PassOut.  Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QzvGKas5RsU (Accessed: 29 April 2013). Parlophone (2009) Frisky-ft. Labrinth. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QzvGKas5RsU (Accessed: 28 April 2013). Parlophone (2011) Labrinth-Earthquake ft.Tinie Tempah. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QzvGKas5RsU (Accessed: 28 April 2013). QYPE.CO.UK (2013) Dark N’ Cold, London Available at:   http://www.qype.co.uk/place/87630-Dark-n-Cold-London (Accessed: 8th May 2013). RedRaiderNation (2008) Slave, Lucky Dube. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6BOUMjAPixw (Accessed: 10th March 2013). RoundSquareX (2009) How to Make Sonic Sound, Quincy Jones, Recording Engineer Skills   Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-H1mCEAoiA (Accessed: 29 April 2013). RubenSef13 (2007) Snap – The Power. Available at:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z33tH-JdPDg (Accessed: 29th April 2013). Sane (2013) Meeting the challenge of Mental illness. Available at: http://www.sane.org.uk/ (Accessed: 29 April 2013). Sheehan, W. (1996) the Planet Mars: A History of Observation and Discovery. Available at:http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/onlinebks/ MARS/CHAP01.HTM (Accessed 29th March 2013). Siegel, E. (2012) Starts With a Bang! The Far Future of our Solar System. Available at: http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2013/05/08/the-far-future-of-our-solar-system/(Accessed 10 April 2013). Teslar Memorial Society New York (2013) Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Available at:  http://www.teslasociety.com/einstein.htm (Accessed: 29 April 2013). Theparisreview.org (2013) Interviews, Chinua Acheba, The Art of Fiction No. 139. Interviewed by Jerome Brooks. Available at: http://www.theparisreview.org/ interviews/1720/the-art-of-fiction-no-139-chinua-achebe (Accessed: 16th April 2013). Time to Change (2008) let’s end Mental health Discrimination. Available at: http://www.time-to-change.org.uk/your-organisation/support-workplace (Accessed: 29 April 2013). http://WWW.Tingatingatales.com (2010) Watch Tinga Tinga Talse Videos! Available at: http://www.tingatingatales.com/watch.aspx (Accessed: 16th May 2013). Tingatingatales.com (2010) Tinga Tinag Tales. Available at: http://www.tingatingatales.com/ (Accessed: 16th May 2013). Tinga Tinga Studio (2012) ThorupART- Tingatinga from Craft to Art. Available at: http://www.tingatingastudio.com/menu_events.html (Accessed: 15 May 2013). Tinga Tinga Studio (2012) Paintings From Africa? Yes!!! Available at: http://www.tingatingastudio.com/ (Accessed: 15 May 2013). Vocabulary.com (2013) Empathetic. Available at:     https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/empathetic (Accessed: 1st April 2013). Walt Disney (2012) Presents The Lion King Poster jpeg.  Available at:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Lion_King_poster.jpg (Accessed: 16th May 2013). White, J. (2002) Steps for Product Development. Available at: http://www.willitsell.com/design.asp (Accessed: 8 March 2013). Wikkipedia (2013) Braque, G. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Braque (Accessed 5th May 2013). Wikipedia (2013) Mental disorder. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Mental_disorder  (Accessed: 16 March 2013). Wikipedia (2013) Serendipity. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serendipity (Accessed: 16 March 2013). Wikipedia (2013) The Lion King. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lion_King (Accessed: 16th May 2013) Wisegeek.com (2013) What is a Prototype? Available at: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-prototype.htm (Accessed: 8 March 2013).  

PG02 – Cycle 3 – Interdisclipinary Project



The effect of depth cues using 3D glasses.

Picture available at: http://stormmultimediatechnologies.wordpress.com/our-stock-items/real-3d-glases/

If a 3D camera is being used to film, whilst an image is being watched by a viewer who is wearing 3D glasses. After watching an original footage of what is on the screen, before the depth cues are altered or changed. The viewers brain responds by trying to reprocess the image to the image it first saw compensating to keep it the same as the original depth cue the eyes saw on the screen. It does this by overriding what the viewer is seeing. This can often result in head-aches due to the changes in focal points, eye tracking and shifts of depth cues, as the eyes converge to focus. This risk to health appears to be the main hindrance to the future of Stereoscopic 3D.

Jonathan Weinberg (Jan 2013) says: “Many manufacturers unveiled Ultra High-Definition sets at this year’s show – the latest TV innovation tipped to deliver a staggeringly realistic picture and the ability to show 3D content in better than HD quality. “As with 3D, Ultra HD is likely to suffer from the lack of content available, but that could change quickly. UHD TV will be the standard by 2020.” See: http://uk.news.yahoo.com/the-tv-of-the-future–ultra-hd—curved-screens-and-gesture-control-111625542.html and

Red Epic High Frame Rate Camera                                                  Red Epic Ultra HD 4K Camera. RPicture available at: http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2412174,00.asp

Ultra HD TV 4K cameras such as the ‘Red epic’ can be shot instead of 3D content, since the Ultra HD content can be streamed to a curved Ultra HD TV screen using Ultra HD technology instead of the current 3D TV and glasses. The benefits are It is better for the viewers health and that the film industry can stream movies in the home onto larger screens and limit video pirating by not releasing films on DVD.

More Stereoscopic 3D content may be produced for the cinema and less for the 3D home TV market. Since the production of Stereoscopic 3D films are now guided by company policies which help restrict how much image projection e.g. ‘2 in screen’ and ‘1 out screen’ is permitted to prevent health problems such as eye strains and headaches occurring. In future Home TV content will continue to develop higher resolution picture quality using Ultra HD 4K Technology for the movies and home TV market.

Picture available at: http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2412174,00.asp

The Crew:

Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja – The Producer.

Caroline Orme – The Director/Editor

Shkelzen Xeni – The Art Director/1st Visual Effects

Catherine Lui – 3rd Visual Effects

Victoria Smith – 2nd Visual Effects

Group Work.

The group commenced with 4 members and were later joined by a 5th Victoria smith (Visual effects), Shkelzen Kernaja (Artistic Director/Visual Effects), Caroline Orme (Director), Catherine Lui (DP/Visual Effects), Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja (Producer). We agreed to create a 3D Stereoscopic titling for one of our members film the Jurassic Coast Project, which is a 3 D Stereoscopic film of the Jurassic Coast presented by Artist and Lecturer Jeremy Gardner which is in Post Production with Caroline Orme our Director.

Zen had the task of creating some titles as visual effects that would appear when and where the Director had requested on screen. He did this, then it was agreed that the texture of the titles needed to resemble the stone found on the Jurassic Coast. So a jpeg was sent to Zen to use for compositing onto the titles by Caroline our Director.  All this time Diepiri was co-coordinating the Production making sure that tasks were carried out by all group members. The Producer Diepiri spoke with Zen on Skype in the evening of Sun 09 Dec. Zen sent him screen shoots of info to demonstrate to Diepiri that he had done the compositing of the new stone texture onto the titling as requested by the Director Caroline. Zen also confirmed that he had created two samples to choose from. Whilst Catherine too has been asked to create a 3rd rubble stone sample for consideration.

The group is to meet, just visual effects and Director on Tuesday 11th Dec at 1pm, to decide on final choice of sample for editing in mystica. It was agreed with the Artistic Director Zen that once one of the sample titling had been chosen the Director and Producer can then approve of it and the film can then be edited using Mystica, After Effects or Nuke. Production Meeting held 1.00 pm 11th Dec 2012 (Art Direction)

After speaking with Diepiri the Producer on Sunday 9th Dec in the evening about the work Zen had completed in Post-Production for the Group work. Zen requested a meeting for the group to meet on Monday 10th December in the morning. As the Producer Diepiri agreed for the meeting to be go ahead on Monday morning as usual with Zen and Catherine on Skype. However  Zen later requested that the meeting be changed to 1.00pm on Tuesday 11th Dec 2012, by informing Diepiri and Catherine on Skype and on the group Facebook. He was unable to get in touch with Caroline so Diepiri contacted her via text and voice mail informing her of the changes that had taken place. Since Zen’s not make it to the group meeting on Monday to a physical meeting it occurred to Diepiri as the producer that it was not necessary for him to be present proving the Art Direction which he and Zen the Art Director and the 2nd art Director Catherine had to discuss was implemented and one choice was made by the Director and art directors.

Diepiri then explained to Zen and Catherine on Skype that he would not be present at the meeting and made it clear to Zen that the Producer was not required in this instance since what was required was a meeting between the Art Directors and the Director to decide on which rendered titling they wanted to go with. since he had seen what Zen had proposed and was happy to go along with either of them. Diepiri also requested that Catherine’s own the 3rd option, be considered if it was better than Zen’s then it could also be considered as a viable option. Caroline respond to the changes by requesting for a 10 min meeting with Diepiri for 5.00 pm which Diepiri responded by agreeing to a 10 min conversation on Skype instead of coming all the way into College just for the 10 min chat. He requested Caroline’s Skype address which was not forwarded to him and so the 10 min video conference between the Producer and the Director did not take place.

Lesson learnt

Zen is the 1st Art Director/After Effects Editor. Catherine Production Manager/2nd Art Director, Caroline the Director and Diepiri the Producer. Diepiri as Producer should have dictated when the group should be meeting that is up to the Producer! which was on the Monday regardless! He should have insisted  the appointment should have been kept then and that everyone must attend. Since Diepiri had discussed with the lecturer Mike on the Friday 7th Dec that the group would be meeting on the Monday and Mike had been kind enough to offer his time to be there with the group. Producers, Directors and Production Managers should not let their Visual Effects people dictate when and where they should meet. Since they do not fully understand the Production Process. therefore it becomes confusing and can result in bad Communications which can ultimately affect the Production

The Producer Diepiri spoke with the Director Caroline today regarding the 3D Stereoscopic titling the group is making for the Jurassic Coast documentary film. The Producer then sent a summery update via email to all the group members to let them all know where they are in the production of the project. He also concluded with the Director Caroline an estimated completion date, which she said will be should be in the 2nd week of January 2013.

The 4 group members agreed on Stereoscopic titling proposals. 3 from Zen and 1 from Catherine and 1 from Victoria. So far only Zen’s has been received by the Director for Post-production. Therefore if the Director does not receive the rubble titling proposal from Catherine as the 3rd option both the Producer and Director are happy to go along with one of Zens proposal once the matter concerning the movements of the titles has been resolved by Zen. The Producer is very happy to go along with either one of Zen’s options since they reflect the ideas that the Director wanted to incorporate into the film.

Time is now short so the group has passed on the 3rd option by Catherine which had not been seen. The Director Caroline will do the Post-Production in Mystica and complete it by the 2nd week in January 2013 as a short piece of film with the titles in it which will be one of the Groups work submission. Since Lecturer Mike would like the group to come up with another piece of work in order to complete the unit successfully

The Producer and Director agreed that the group should meet at the College in January 2013 with ideas on what other 3D Stereoscopic project they wish to carry out and what visual effects they want to create, for the next group project. The Producer has asked each member to come up with an idea. He has come up with his own idea which is if someone else wants to take the reigns as the Producer and Director such as the Visual effects people like Zen or Catherine he would be glad to step down as the Producer. However if the group wants him to continue as Producer or Director he will be only too happy to do so.

The Producers own proposal idea for the 2nd group project is to shoot a 30/45 sec Stereoscopic 3D Commercial Advert with a 3D logo design for on-line TV Channel: www.dmjtv.com and upload it once it is completed. We agreed as a group to shoot something in the library. Diepiri and Zen recorded on behalf of the group 4 shots in the library, which were later edited down to 1 shot using 3 out of the 4 shots.

This was then handed to Caroline the group editor to create anaglyph to give a left and right for the visual effects to be applied through tracking using ‘Motion Boujou 5’ which tracks the video on one eye so that what ever is done in one eye happens to the other eye as an animation which can be rendered.

The group diligently applied their skills whilst acquiring new ones such as using the Z1000 3D camera to shoot the second project to demonstrate that we had been able to learn and understand how to actually shoot 3D Stereoscopic with a full knowledge of the difficulties such as setting us and making sure we chose the right locations that would demonstrate the depth of filed and allow us to play around with depth cues when creating the visual effects using cinema 4 d, after effects and Maya. Below are the final projects produced by the group for this assignment.

Project Anaglyphs, taken from Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja on Vimeo and group members vimeo and youtubes.

1. Titling sequence by Zen


MASTER EDIT – slow mo Title in side by side – font normal size ONLINE from Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja on Vimeo. Titling sequence by Zen


MASTER EDIT – slow mo Title in anaglyph- font normal size ONLINE anaglyph Copy from Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja on Vimeo Titling sequence by Zen


Titling sequence by Catherine Lui’s Youtube


Victoria’s title sequence from on Vimeo.


With the time we had as a group we were able to produce a professional piece of work with Zens work. if we had more time we could have helped Catherine and Victoria complete their contributions to a much higher standard. The work produced are all very interesting and varied which means that by having a diverse group makes for an even more interesting results. There were moments when the group achieved group synergy especially when we had deadlines to reach and when each member was given the opportunity under some pressure to deliver their own work for the group  projects. Overall this was a very conscientious and hard working group which set about the task at hand in a meticulous way. Towards the end as group members got to know more about what each member brought to with them in terms of skills, they began to relax and enjoy the experience of the group work.


Assignment Cover Sheet for Online Submission

  Please fill in the following:
Student Name: Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja
Student Number:  
Web link for the group work on the Blog Date: 23/01/13 



Project 2: individual

Group Name:

MA Broadcast Futures

Role in:

Please copy the following from the Project Brief:

Project Title:

“1. Pave the Way 2. the Library”

Unit Code:

PG02: cycle 3 – Interdisciplinary Project

Assignment Number:


Project Leader:

Reg Sanders




By submitting this document:

  1. I certify that this assignment is my/our own work and that I am familiar with Ravensbourne’s Plagiarism Policy. I also understand that plagiarism is a serious academic offence.
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MA Manifesto and Lead Question PG01



Diepiri MacPepple-Jaja

Research PG01 – Manifesto:


This Manifesto comes from my Modern African Art concept which I would like to promote as the Modern African Art Movement. You see prior to commencing my studies at Ravensbourne College I was an accomplished Modern African Painter. With numerous works, exhibitions and publications of my work in papers journals and magazines such as the ‘Fine Art Trade Guild of Great Britain’ and I was also listed in their Directory as an Artist ‘Master Craftsman’. Besides one of my Paintings called ‘Dancing Nubian Girls’ toured the British Isles for Queen Elizabeth II’s Golden Jubilee Celebration through the ‘Fine Art Trade Guild. Who exhibited my work at various Exhibitions in Scotland, England and Wales ending at the ‘Marylebone Art Gallery’ in the West End of London, for a final exhibition. later I was also invited to show my work in Scotland at the Gallery which won the best independent gallery in that year.

Lead question: How can Nollywood Movies be made to appeal to a wider International Audience?’.